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Discontinuity Detection in the Shield Metal Arc Welding Process

School of Mines, Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, Brazil
Instituto Tecnológico Vale (ITV)—Avenida Juscelino Kubitschek, 31, Bauxita, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, Brazil
Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv-CTA), 12228-970 São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1082;
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
PDF [6074 KB, uploaded 10 May 2017]


This work proposes a new methodology for the detection of discontinuities in the weld bead applied in Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) processes. The detection system is based on two sensors—a microphone and piezoelectric—that acquire acoustic emissions generated during the welding. The feature vectors extracted from the sensor dataset are used to construct classifier models. The approaches based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are able to identify with a high accuracy the three proposed weld bead classes: desirable weld bead, shrinkage cavity and burn through discontinuities. Experimental results illustrate the system’s high accuracy, greater than 90% for each class. A novel Hierarchical Support Vector Machine (HSVM) structure is proposed to make feasible the use of this system in industrial environments. This approach presented 96.6% overall accuracy. Given the simplicity of the equipment involved, this system can be applied in the metal transformation industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: support vector machine; artificial neural network; shielded metal arc welding; sensory fusion support vector machine; artificial neural network; shielded metal arc welding; sensory fusion

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cocota, J.A.N.; Garcia, G.C.; Da Costa, A.R.; De Lima, M.S.F.; Rocha, F.A.S.; Freitas, G.M. Discontinuity Detection in the Shield Metal Arc Welding Process. Sensors 2017, 17, 1082.

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