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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors

1
Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
2
Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
3
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chuan-Jian Zhong
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020386
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables. The effects of an alternative pre-enrichment broth (LB broth vs. lactose broth), incubation time on the detection performance and negative control were investigated. In addition, different blocking agents (BSA, Casein, and Superblock) were evaluated to minimize the effect of nonspecific binding. None of the blocking agents was found to be superior to the others, or even better than none. Unblocked ME biosensors were placed directly in a concentrated suspension and allowed to bind with Salmonella cells for 30 min before measuring the resonant frequency using a surface-scanning coil detector. It was found that 7 h incubation at 37 °C in LB broth was necessary to detect an initial spike of 100 cfu/25 g S. Typhimurium on spinach leaves with a confidence level of difference greater than 95% (p < 0.05). Thus, the ME biosensor method, on both partly and fully detection, was demonstrated to be a robust and competitive method for foodborne pathogens on fresh products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Typhimurium; spinach; magnetoelastic; biosensors Salmonella Typhimurium; spinach; magnetoelastic; biosensors
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Wang, F.; Horikawa, S.; Hu, J.; Wikle, H.C., III; Chen, I.-H.; Du, S.; Liu, Y.; Chin, B.A. Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 386.

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