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CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

Maxim Integrated Products Inc., 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134, USA
Xcellcure LLC., 1 City Place Drive Suite 285, St. Louis, MO 63131, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Apple Inc., 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA 95014, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors have equal contributions to this paper.
Academic Editor: Huangxian Ju
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 74;
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 31 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiosensing for Sensors)
PDF [7010 KB, uploaded 3 January 2017]


Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical; biosensor; amperometry; potentiostat; current readout; impedance spectroscopy electrochemical; biosensor; amperometry; potentiostat; current readout; impedance spectroscopy

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Li, H.; Liu, X.; Li, L.; Mu, X.; Genov, R.; Mason, A.J. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review. Sensors 2017, 17, 74.

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