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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1005;

Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging

Applied Quantum Architecture Lab (AQUA), Quantum Engineering Department, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
Advanced Quantum Architecture lab (AQUA), Microengineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 110DD, The Netherlands
Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: David Stoppa
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
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The paper presents a camera comprising 512 × 128 pixels capable of single-photon detection and gating with a maximum frame rate of 156 kfps. The photon capture is performed through a gated single-photon avalanche diode that generates a digital pulse upon photon detection and through a digital one-bit counter. Gray levels are obtained through multiple counting and accumulation, while time-resolved imaging is achieved through a 4-ns gating window controlled with subnanosecond accuracy by a field-programmable gate array. The sensor, which is equipped with microlenses to enhance its effective fill factor, was electro-optically characterized in terms of sensitivity and uniformity. Several examples of capture of fast events are shown to demonstrate the suitability of the approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Antolovic, I.M.; Burri, S.; Hoebe, R.A.; Maruyama, Y.; Bruschini, C.; Charbon, E. Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging. Sensors 2016, 16, 1005.

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