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Open AccessArticle

Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging

1
Applied Quantum Architecture Lab (AQUA), Quantum Engineering Department, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
2
Advanced Quantum Architecture lab (AQUA), Microengineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
3
Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 110DD, The Netherlands
4
Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: David Stoppa
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071005
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
The paper presents a camera comprising 512 × 128 pixels capable of single-photon detection and gating with a maximum frame rate of 156 kfps. The photon capture is performed through a gated single-photon avalanche diode that generates a digital pulse upon photon detection and through a digital one-bit counter. Gray levels are obtained through multiple counting and accumulation, while time-resolved imaging is achieved through a 4-ns gating window controlled with subnanosecond accuracy by a field-programmable gate array. The sensor, which is equipped with microlenses to enhance its effective fill factor, was electro-optically characterized in terms of sensitivity and uniformity. Several examples of capture of fast events are shown to demonstrate the suitability of the approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS single-photon avalanche diode; SPAD; fluorescence; fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy; FLIM; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; FCS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antolovic, I.M.; Burri, S.; Hoebe, R.A.; Maruyama, Y.; Bruschini, C.; Charbon, E. Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging. Sensors 2016, 16, 1005.

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