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An Indoor Positioning Method for Smartphones Using Landmarks and PDR
Open AccessArticle

GridiLoc: A Backtracking Grid Filter for Fusing the Grid Model with PDR Using Smartphone Sensors

by Jianga Shang 1,2, Xuke Hu 3,*, Wen Cheng 1,2 and Hongchao Fan 3
1
Faculty of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
National Engineering Research Center for Geographic Information System, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Institute of Geography, Heidelberg University, Berliner Street 48, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Wang
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122137
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Although map filtering-aided Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) is capable of largely improving indoor localization accuracy, it becomes less efficient when coping with highly complex indoor spaces. For instance, indoor spaces with a few close corners or neighboring passages can lead to particles entering erroneous passages, which can further cause the failure of subsequent tracking. To address this problem, we propose GridiLoc, a reliable and accurate pedestrian indoor localization method through the fusion of smartphone sensors and a grid model. The key novelty of GridiLoc is the utilization of a backtracking grid filter for improving localization accuracy and for handling dead ending issues. In order to reduce the time consumption of backtracking, a topological graph is introduced for representing candidate backtracking points, which are the expected locations at the starting time of the dead ending. Furthermore, when the dead ending is caused by the erroneous step length model of PDR, our solution can automatically calibrate the model by using the historical tracking data. Our experimental results show that GridiLoc achieves a higher localization accuracy and reliability compared with the commonly-used map filtering approach. Meanwhile, it maintains an acceptable computational complexity. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization; pedestrian dead reckoning; grid filter; backtracking; smartphone sensors indoor localization; pedestrian dead reckoning; grid filter; backtracking; smartphone sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shang, J.; Hu, X.; Cheng, W.; Fan, H. GridiLoc: A Backtracking Grid Filter for Fusing the Grid Model with PDR Using Smartphone Sensors. Sensors 2016, 16, 2137.

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