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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2107;

Acoustical Direction Finding with Time-Modulated Arrays

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrew J. Mason, Haitao Li and Yuning Yang
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Sensor Arrays and Array Signal Processing)
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Time-Modulated Linear Arrays (TMLAs) offer useful efficiency savings over conventional phased arrays when applied in parameter estimation applications. The present paper considers the application of TMLAs to acoustic systems and proposes an algorithm for efficiently deriving the arrival angle of a signal. The proposed technique is applied in the frequency domain, where the signal and harmonic content is captured. Using a weighted average method on harmonic amplitudes and their respective main beam angles, it is possible to determine an estimate for the signal’s direction of arrival. The method is demonstrated and evaluated using results from both numerical and practical implementations and performance data is provided. The use of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors allows time-modulation techniques to be applied at ultrasonic frequencies. Theoretical predictions for an array of five isotropic elements with half-wavelength spacing and 1000 data samples suggest an accuracy of ± 1 within an angular range of approximately ± 50 . In experiments of a 40 kHz five-element microphone array, a Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation within ± 2 . 5 of the target signal is readily achieved inside a ± 45 range using a single switched input stage and a simple hardware setup. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-modulation; linear array; MEMS; direction of arrival time-modulation; linear array; MEMS; direction of arrival

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Clark, B.; Flint, J.A. Acoustical Direction Finding with Time-Modulated Arrays. Sensors 2016, 16, 2107.

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