# Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Space Charge Density Measurement System Framework

## 3. Design of the Space Charge Density Measurement System

#### 3.1. Space Charge Density Sensor Design and Working Principle

_{0}is the vacuum dielectric constant, C is the plate capacitor, U is the voltage between plates. For coaxial cylinder type plate, critical mobility of charged particle counter is

^{−2}cm

^{2}/(V·s)), and small ion migration velocity is quick (1–2 cm

^{2}/(V·s)).

_{I}is the current formed by the charged particles hit the plate, R

_{I}is the insulation resistance between the plates, C

_{I}is the equivalent capacitance between the plates, C

_{LEAK}is the stray capacitance, R

_{LEAK}is the insulation resistance of line, R

_{IS}is the leakage resistance of plate bias source module, R

_{U}is the output resistance of the plate bias source, C

_{U}is the output capacitance of the plate bias source, R

_{E}is the equivalent resistance between the charged particle counter and the earth, C

_{E}is the equivalent capacitance between the charged particle counter and the earth, R

_{O}is the input resistance of current measurement circuit, C

_{O}is the input capacitance of current measurement circuit. Leakage current may be produced in R

_{I}, R

_{LEAK}, R

_{IS}, R

_{E}or R

_{O}. In order to ensure the leakage current is small enough, need to make the resistance increased quickly. At the same time, to avoid the influence of stray capacitance on measurements, signal transmission cables should be short.

#### 3.2. Design of the Sensor

^{−3}), V is the velocity of the air flowing in the pipe (m/s), D is the device outer diameter (m), and η is the fluid viscosity (Pa·s).

^{2}/(V·s) and the negative ion migration rate is 1.67 cm

^{2}/(V·s), so we can know that the mentioned ion counter is designed to monitor only small ions.

_{x}/T

_{x}) operations. The typical range for the module is 1.5 km line-of sight with 2.0 dB dipole antenna and 90 m indoor.

#### 3.3. Software Design of the Measurement System

## 4. Implementation of the Distributed Measurement System

#### 4.1. Topology of the Wireless Sensor Network

#### 4.2. Communication Quality Evaluation

## 5. Validation and Experiment

#### 5.1. Transmitted Power Consumption Measurement Analysis

#### 5.2. Complex Environment Test

#### 5.3. Wireless Communication Network Reliability Analysis

#### 5.4. Space Charge Density Measurement Test under UHVDC Transmission Line

## 6. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Channel Number | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

Center Frequency/GHz | 2.410 | 2.415 | 2.420 | 2.425 | 2.430 | 2.435 | 2.440 | 2.445 | 2.450 | 2.455 | 2.460 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Xin, E.; Ju, Y.; Yuan, H.
Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment. *Sensors* **2016**, *16*, 1743.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101743

**AMA Style**

Xin E, Ju Y, Yuan H.
Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment. *Sensors*. 2016; 16(10):1743.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101743

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Xin, Encheng, Yong Ju, and Haiwen Yuan.
2016. "Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment" *Sensors* 16, no. 10: 1743.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101743