Next Article in Journal
Reference Beam Pattern Design for Frequency Invariant Beamforming Based on Fast Fourier Transform
Next Article in Special Issue
An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications
Previous Article in Journal
Small Moving Vehicle Detection in a Satellite Video of an Urban Area
Previous Article in Special Issue
Proof-of-Concept of a Millimeter-Wave Integrated Heterogeneous Network for 5G Cellular
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Performance Evaluation of Analog Beamforming with Hardware Impairments for mmW Massive MIMO Communication in an Urban Scenario

iTEAM Research Institute, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain
Nokia Bell Labs, Stuttgart 70435, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: He (Henry) Chen
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1555;
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications and Networks)
PDF [1557 KB, uploaded 22 September 2016]


The use of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques for communication at millimeter-Wave (mmW) frequency bands has become a key enabler to meet the data rate demands of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In particular, analog and hybrid beamforming solutions are receiving increasing attention as less expensive and more power efficient alternatives to fully digital precoding schemes. Despite their proven good performance in simple setups, their suitability for realistic cellular systems with many interfering base stations and users is still unclear. Furthermore, the performance of massive MIMO beamforming and precoding methods are in practice also affected by practical limitations and hardware constraints. In this sense, this paper assesses the performance of digital precoding and analog beamforming in an urban cellular system with an accurate mmW channel model under both ideal and realistic assumptions. The results show that analog beamforming can reach the performance of fully digital maximum ratio transmission under line of sight conditions and with a sufficient number of parallel radio-frequency (RF) chains, especially when the practical limitations of outdated channel information and per antenna power constraints are considered. This work also shows the impact of the phase shifter errors and combiner losses introduced by real phase shifter and combiner implementations over analog beamforming, where the former ones have minor impact on the performance, while the latter ones determine the optimum number of RF chains to be used in practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: massive MIMO; analog beamforming; hardware impairments; millimeter-wave massive MIMO; analog beamforming; hardware impairments; millimeter-wave

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gimenez, S.; Roger, S.; Baracca, P.; Martín-Sacristán, D.; Monserrat, J.F.; Braun, V.; Halbauer, H. Performance Evaluation of Analog Beamforming with Hardware Impairments for mmW Massive MIMO Communication in an Urban Scenario. Sensors 2016, 16, 1555.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top