Next Article in Journal
Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances
Next Article in Special Issue
Keeping a Good Attitude: A Quaternion-Based Orientation Filter for IMUs and MARGs
Previous Article in Journal
A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Method for Oscillation Errors Restriction of SINS Based on Forecasted Time Series
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19251-19263;

Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14300, Espoo 00076, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The preliminary results of this study were presented in the 12th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Tokyo, Japan, 22–26 September 2014.
Academic Editor: Gert F. Trommer
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems)
PDF [2778 KB, uploaded 5 August 2015]


Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: accelerometer; IEPE; intelligent tire; friction; vehicle accelerometer; IEPE; intelligent tire; friction; vehicle

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Niskanen, A.; Tuononen, A.J. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators. Sensors 2015, 15, 19251-19263.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top