Next Article in Journal
Collaborative WiFi Fingerprinting Using Sensor-Based Navigation on Smartphones
Previous Article in Journal
Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 17507-17533;

Evaluation of Fear Using Nonintrusive Measurement of Multimodal Sensors

Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 26 Pil-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 12 April 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4855 KB, uploaded 20 July 2015]   |  


Most previous research into emotion recognition used either a single modality or multiple modalities of physiological signal. However, the former method allows for limited enhancement of accuracy, and the latter has the disadvantages that its performance can be affected by head or body movements. Further, the latter causes inconvenience to the user due to the sensors attached to the body. Among various emotions, the accurate evaluation of fear is crucial in many applications, such as criminal psychology, intelligent surveillance systems and the objective evaluation of horror movies. Therefore, we propose a new method for evaluating fear based on nonintrusive measurements obtained using multiple sensors. Experimental results based on the t-test, the effect size and the sum of all of the correlation values with other modalities showed that facial temperature and subjective evaluation are more reliable than electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye blinking rate for the evaluation of fear. View Full-Text
Keywords: fear; nonintrusive multimodal measurement; facial temperature; subjective evaluation fear; nonintrusive multimodal measurement; facial temperature; subjective evaluation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, J.-S.; Bang, J.W.; Heo, H.; Park, K.R. Evaluation of Fear Using Nonintrusive Measurement of Multimodal Sensors. Sensors 2015, 15, 17507-17533.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top