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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7844-7856;

Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

College of Engineering, Taibah University, University Road, Madinah, Saudi Arabia
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [644 KB, uploaded 31 March 2015]


We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy tunneling; dielectric sensors; metamaterials; metallic wire medium; waveguides energy tunneling; dielectric sensors; metamaterials; metallic wire medium; waveguides
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Siddiqui, O.; Kashanianfard, M.; Ramahi, O. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling. Sensors 2015, 15, 7844-7856.

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