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Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30810-30826;

Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001, Australia
Academic Editors: Fabio Menna, Fabio Remondino and Hans-Gerd Maas
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 7 December 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [1168 KB, uploaded 7 December 2015]   |  


Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: camera; calibration; underwater; refraction; accuracy; validation; stability camera; calibration; underwater; refraction; accuracy; validation; stability

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shortis, M. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems. Sensors 2015, 15, 30810-30826.

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