Next Article in Journal
Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 297-319;

Modulation Techniques for Biomedical Implanted Devices and Their Challenges

Department of Electrical, Electronic & Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 15 December 2011 / Accepted: 15 December 2011 / Published: 28 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [415 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


Implanted medical devices are very important electronic devices because of their usefulness in monitoring and diagnosis, safety and comfort for patients. Since 1950s, remarkable efforts have been undertaken for the development of bio-medical implanted and wireless telemetry bio-devices. Issues such as design of suitable modulation methods, use of power and monitoring devices, transfer energy from external to internal parts with high efficiency and high data rates and low power consumption all play an important role in the development of implantable devices. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various modulation and demodulation techniques such as amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) of the existing wireless implanted devices. The details of specifications, including carrier frequency, CMOS size, data rate, power consumption and supply, chip area and application of the various modulation schemes of the implanted devices are investigated and summarized in the tables along with the corresponding key references. Current challenges and problems of the typical modulation applications of these technologies are illustrated with a brief suggestions and discussion for the progress of implanted device research in the future. It is observed that the prime requisites for the good quality of the implanted devices and their reliability are the energy transformation, data rate, CMOS size, power consumption and operation frequency. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts towards the development of low powered, high efficient, high data rate and reliable implanted devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: modulation techniques; bio-medical/wireless implanted devices; power amplifiers; inductive coupling link modulation techniques; bio-medical/wireless implanted devices; power amplifiers; inductive coupling link
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hannan, M.A.; Abbas, S.M.; Samad, S.A.; Hussain, A. Modulation Techniques for Biomedical Implanted Devices and Their Challenges. Sensors 2012, 12, 297-319.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top