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Diversity 2013, 5(1), 73-98;

454 Pyrosequencing Analysis of Fungal Assemblages from Geographically Distant, Disparate Soils Reveals Spatial Patterning and a Core Mycobiome

Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Torino 10125, Italy
Plant Protection Institute (IPP)-Turin UOS, National Research Council (CNR), Torino 10125, Italy
Department of Scienze della Natura e del Territorio, University of Sassari, Sassari 07100, Italy
INRA, UMR 1136, INRA-Nancy Université, Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, Champenoux 54280, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2013 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Quality and Ecosystem)
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Identifying a soil core microbiome is crucial to appreciate the established microbial consortium, which is not usually subjected to change and, hence, possibly resistant/resilient to disturbances and a varying soil context. Fungi are a major part of soil biodiversity, yet the mechanisms driving their large-scale ecological ranges and distribution are poorly understood. The degree of fungal community overlap among 16 soil samples from distinct ecosystems and distant geographic localities (truffle grounds, a Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral system, serpentine substrates and a contaminated industrial area) was assessed by examining the distribution of fungal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences in a dataset of 454 libraries. ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were assigned to 1,660 and 1,393 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs; as defined by 97% sequence similarity), respectively. Fungal beta-diversity was found to be spatially autocorrelated. At the level of individual OTUs, eight ITS1 and seven ITS2 OTUs were found in all soil sample groups. These ubiquitous taxa comprised generalist fungi with oligotrophic and chitinolytic abilities, suggesting that a stable core of fungi across the complex soil fungal assemblages is either endowed with the capacity of sustained development in the nutrient-poor soil conditions or with the ability to exploit organic resources (such as chitin) universally distributed in soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal diversity; fungal communities; metabarcoding; microbiome; biogeography fungal diversity; fungal communities; metabarcoding; microbiome; biogeography

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Orgiazzi, A.; Bianciotto, V.; Bonfante, P.; Daghino, S.; Ghignone, S.; Lazzari, A.; Lumini, E.; Mello, A.; Napoli, C.; Perotto, S.; Vizzini, A.; Bagella, S.; Murat, C.; Girlanda, M. 454 Pyrosequencing Analysis of Fungal Assemblages from Geographically Distant, Disparate Soils Reveals Spatial Patterning and a Core Mycobiome. Diversity 2013, 5, 73-98.

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