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Annelid Diversity: Historical Overview and Future Perspectives
Review

On the Diversity of Phyllodocida (Annelida: Errantia), with a Focus on Glyceridae, Goniadidae, Nephtyidae, Polynoidae, Sphaerodoridae, Syllidae, and the Holoplanktonic Families

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Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), 17300 Blanes, Spain
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Animal Evolution & Biodiversity, Georg-August-Universität, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
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Laboratorio de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
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A. N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution (RAS), 119071 Moscow, Russia
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Fakultät II-Natur- und Sozialwissenschaften Department, University of Vechta, Fach Biologie, Driverstraße 22, 49377 Vechta, Germany
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Departament de Biologia, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma, Spain
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Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
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Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Institute of Oceanography, 19013 Anavyssos, Greece
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Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 04263-000, Brazil
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Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-120, Brazil
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Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Departamento de Biologia, Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Departamento de Biologia, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Campus de Gualtar, Institute of Science and Innovation for Bio-Sustainability (IB-S), Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2021, 13(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13030131
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Diversity of Annelids)
Phyllodocida is a clade of errantiate annelids characterized by having ventral sensory palps, anterior enlarged cirri, axial muscular proboscis, compound chaetae (if present) with a single ligament, and of lacking dorsolateral folds. Members of most families date back to the Carboniferous, although the earliest fossil was dated from the Devonian. Phyllodocida holds 27 well-established and morphologically homogenous clades ranked as families, gathering more than 4600 currently accepted nominal species. Among them, Syllidae and Polynoidae are the most specious polychaete groups. Species of Phyllodocida are mainly found in the marine benthos, although a few inhabit freshwater, terrestrial and planktonic environments, and occur from intertidal to deep waters in all oceans. In this review, we (1) explore the current knowledge on species diversity trends (based on traditional species concept and molecular data), phylogeny, ecology, and geographic distribution for the whole group, (2) try to identify the main knowledge gaps, and (3) focus on selected families: Alciopidae, Goniadidae, Glyceridae, Iospilidae, Lopadorrhynchidae, Polynoidae, Pontodoridae, Nephtyidae, Sphaerodoridae, Syllidae, Tomopteridae, Typhloscolecidae, and Yndolaciidae. The highest species richness is concentrated in European, North American, and Australian continental shelves (reflecting a strong sampling bias). While most data come from shallow coastal and surface environments most world oceans are clearly under-studied. The overall trends indicate that new descriptions are constantly added through time and that less than 10% of the known species have molecular barcode information available. View Full-Text
Keywords: polychaetes; species diversity; molecular diversity; phylogeny; ecology; distribution polychaetes; species diversity; molecular diversity; phylogeny; ecology; distribution
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Graphical abstract

  • Supplementary File 1:

    ZIP-Document (ZIP, 16478 KiB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: (1) 10.6084/m9.figshare.13678570; (2) 10.5883/DS-MTAPP; (3) 10.5883/DS-MTBPP
    Link: http://(1) https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.13678570; (2) https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-MTAPP; (3) https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-MTBPP
    Description: (1) List species and subspecies of Phyllodocida (including all data and scripts used in the treatment of the list), List of selected taxa of Phyllodocida uploaded to BOLD, and List of species of Phyllodocida considered non-indigenous. (2) List of all publicly available COI-5P sequences of Phyllodocida from BOLD and GenBank (3) List of species of Phyllodocida including metadata (e.g., GPS coordinates, depth).
MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, D.; Aguado, M.T.; Fernández Álamo, M.-A.; Britayev, T.A.; Böggemann, M.; Capa, M.; Faulwetter, S.; Fukuda, M.V.; Helm, C.; Petti, M.A.V.; Ravara, A.; Teixeira, M.A.L. On the Diversity of Phyllodocida (Annelida: Errantia), with a Focus on Glyceridae, Goniadidae, Nephtyidae, Polynoidae, Sphaerodoridae, Syllidae, and the Holoplanktonic Families. Diversity 2021, 13, 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13030131

AMA Style

Martin D, Aguado MT, Fernández Álamo M-A, Britayev TA, Böggemann M, Capa M, Faulwetter S, Fukuda MV, Helm C, Petti MAV, Ravara A, Teixeira MAL. On the Diversity of Phyllodocida (Annelida: Errantia), with a Focus on Glyceridae, Goniadidae, Nephtyidae, Polynoidae, Sphaerodoridae, Syllidae, and the Holoplanktonic Families. Diversity. 2021; 13(3):131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13030131

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin, Daniel; Aguado, Maria T.; Fernández Álamo, María-Ana; Britayev, Temir A.; Böggemann, Markus; Capa, María; Faulwetter, Sarah; Fukuda, Marcelo V.; Helm, Conrad; Petti, Monica A.V.; Ravara, Ascensão; Teixeira, Marcos A.L. 2021. "On the Diversity of Phyllodocida (Annelida: Errantia), with a Focus on Glyceridae, Goniadidae, Nephtyidae, Polynoidae, Sphaerodoridae, Syllidae, and the Holoplanktonic Families" Diversity 13, no. 3: 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13030131

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