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Open AccessArticle

Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Geometrid Moths (Geometridae, Lepidoptera) in Mongolia

1
Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstraße 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Ecology Group, Department of Biology, National University of Mongolia, Ikh Surguuliin Gudamj 1, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia
3
Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12050186
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Insect)

Abstract

Geometrids are a species-rich group of moths that serve as reliable indicators for environmental changes. Little is known about the Mongolian moth fauna, and there is no comprehensive review of species richness, diversity, and distribution patterns of geometrid moths in the country. Our study aims to review the existing knowledge on geometrid moths in Mongolia. We compiled geometrid moth records from published scientific papers, our own research, and from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to produce a checklist of geometrid moths of Mongolia. Additionally, we analyzed spatial patterns, species richness, and diversity of geometrid moths within 14 ecoregions of Mongolia and evaluated environmental variables for their distribution. In total, we compiled 1973-point records of 388 geometrid species. The most species-rich ecoregion in Mongolia was Daurian Forest Steppe with 142 species. Annual precipitation and maximum temperature of the warmest month were the most important environmental variables that correlated with NMDS axes in an analysis of geometrid assemblages of different ecoregions in Mongolia.
Keywords: beta diversity; ecoregions; environmental variables; location; NMDS; species checklist beta diversity; ecoregions; environmental variables; location; NMDS; species checklist

1. Introduction

Regarded as disturbing pests or less charismatic than butterflies, moths are nevertheless creatures with an important role in the ecosystem and the potential to serve as environmental indicators [1,2,3,4]. Moths are globally distributed and it is estimated that more than 130,000 described species exist [5], far more than the more conspicuous and mostly diurnal butterflies with ca. 20,000 species. Many moths are pollinators, but due to their nocturnal activity they are not well studied [6]. In a recent review from the current literature, Hahn and Brühl reported that in Europe and North America there are 227 moth–plant interactions with 129 moth species involved [6]. Geometrid moths (Geometridae), constituting one of the biggest families of Lepidoptera, are a species-rich and easily recognizable family that have served as indicators for environmental changes in many previous studies [7,8,9,10]. These groups also appear to be effective at colonizing habitats after natural or anthropogenic disturbances [11]. There are approximately 24,000 described species of Geometridae worldwide [12]. Although Mongolia is one of the largest countries (rank 19th in size) on Earth, little is known about its moth fauna, and there is no comprehensive review of species richness, diversity, and distribution patterns of geometrid moths in the country. A few researchers attempted to summarize information to mainly confirm this lack of information [13].
Mongolia is a country that encompasses landscapes with a high variety of climatic and geographic features with forest in the north, high mountains in the west, desert in the south, and steppes in the eastern and central parts of Mongolia [14,15]. Altogether, it comprises 16 ecoregions [16] (Figure 1). Ecosystems change along a latitudinal gradient from forest in the north, over steppe and semi-desert to desert in the south [17]. In most areas of the country, livestock herding is a dominant land-use practice, and due to overgrazing, some pasture lands have recently been degraded [18]. With recent discoveries of various mineral resources, mining has become not only the main economic sector, but also the major reason for environmental disturbance in Mongolia. Together with climate change, it is the major driver for habitat loss and environmental changes [14,19]. As a result of these anthropogenic changes, many species are disappearing, but there is little information about which species are at greatest risk of becoming extinct, especially for the less studied taxa.
In order to monitor diversity loss and gain, and to further study the influence of environmental disturbance and climate change on geometrid moths in Mongolia, we need an up-to-date dataset that mirrors the current state of knowledge and that includes all species already recorded. Given this knowledge gap, this study aims to review, summarize, and evaluate the existing knowledge on geometrid moths in Mongolia. It will provide a baseline for further studies, as well as define research priorities in the field. In this study, we aim to: (1) provide a checklist of geometrid moths of Mongolia, setting a baseline for future studies, (2) analyze distribution patterns and species richness and diversity of geometrid moths within ecoregions of Mongolia, and (3) analyze which environmental variables are most important in determining their distribution. We are aware that all results can only give a provisional status due to the data situation, especially the results for Objectives 2 and 3 can only be given with caution; however, our detailed review of the current data will help to define the needs for further research more efficiently.

Study Review

Information on the species composition of Macrolepidoptera of Mongolia began to accumulate from the end of the nineteenth century, as a result of the works of collectors such as Fritz Dörries, Hauberhauer and Leder, and others. Otto Staudinger [20] published the first paper on the collection of Fritz Dörries, who made a trip in 1879 to Khentii Mountains to collect Lepidoptera. This resulted in data on the location of 75 species of geometrids in central and western parts of Mongolia [20]. Later, Staudinger published several papers and books on the fauna of Palaearctic Lepidoptera which included some geometrid species from Mongolia [21,22,23]. In 1964, a Mongolian–German expedition conducted a biological survey, as a result of the expedition 214 Lepidopteran exemplars were sampled. Burchard Alberti later published the results on Lepidoptera and nine geometrid species were listed in the paper [24]. Likewise, Joseph Moucha listed four geometrid species from a Mongolian–Czech entomological–botanical expedition, which was conducted around 1960 [25]. Grigory Grum-Grshimailo found three geometrid species from Selenge Aimag in the collection of M.I. Molleson [26]. Alexander Mikhailovich Djakonov [27,28] recorded a new occurrence of Horisme scosiata and described one new species Scotopteryx transbaicalica from the family of Geometridae based on old material of Staudinger. Other researchers such as Karl Dietze [29], Eugen Wehrli [30], and Fritz Heydemann [31] also described new species. In the fourth volume and its supplementary of “Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Die Spanner des Palaearktischen Faunengebietes“ series edited by Adalbert Seitz, 34 geometrid species were listed for Mongolia [32,33].
The most important contribution to the collection and study of Mongolian geometrid moths were made by Russian and Soviet expeditions led by Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov and later by Soviet–Mongolian expeditions [34,35,36]. During the survey of Soviet–Mongolian expeditions, Jaan Viidalepp recorded a total of 201 geometrid species.Viidalepp later in 1999 compiled a checklist of geometrid moths of the former U.S.S.R and in this monograph 210 species were included for Mongolia [37]. Particularly rich and diverse material on Lepidoptera (41,000 specimens) were collected by the Hungarian expeditions conducted by Zoltán Kaszab, who made six entomological collecting trips along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in Mongolia, between 1963 and 1968. András Vojnits published several papers based on the Kaszab’s collections dedicated to subfamilies of Geometridae in the period between 1974 and 1979. He recorded 177 species from the whole collection, described 39 species new to the fauna of Mongolia and four species new to science [38,39,40,41,42,43,44]. Malcolm J. Scoble [45] presented 66 taxa from Mongolia.
Other researchers also contributed to the study of Mongolian geometrid moths. For instance, Gantigmaa Ch. and coworkers recorded 90 species in the West Khentii of Northern Mongolia [46]. In the book “Biodiversity of Sokhondinsky Reserve”, 29 geometrid species from Mongolia have been included [47]. Beljaev and Vasilenko [48] noted 29 species of geometrid moths in Mongolia. Vasilenko and colleagues [49,50,51] recorded eight species and described one new species Rhodostrophia ustyuzhanini in Western Mongolia. In 2012 and 2013, we collected 70 geometrid species from central and northern parts of Mongolia [4]. Mironov and Glasworthy [52] reported 57 species with two species (Eupithecia ankini, Eupithecia munguata) new to science and 12 species new to the fauna of Mongolia. Erlacher et al. studied six geometrid species from Mongolia and described one new species Charissa beljaevi [53,54,55]. In 2019, Makhov and Beljaev [56] studied the geometrid moths of the Baikal Region and recorded 14 species from Mongolia. In six volumes of “The Geometrid Moths of Europe”, 117 moth species are listed from Mongolia. We validated our species checklist with these volumes [57,58,59,60,61,62].

2. Materials and Methods

We compiled geometrid moth records from published scientific papers, from our work [63] (all sample identifications were double checked by curator T. Enkhbayar, Department of Biology, National University of Mongolia), from the collections of the Siberian Zoological Museum (curator - S.V.Vasilenko) [64], and also from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) [65]. Lastly, we checked the “Revised, annotated systematic checklist of the Geometridae of Europe and adjacent areas, Vols 1–6” [62]. From the Museum collections we could only get country-level information, not the exact location. From GBIF data, we included 380 records into our species list [65]. Fourteen specimens of six species were found in the public data of The Barcode of Life Data System (Bold System) [66].
We used Google Scholar to search the literature with following search strings:
-
With all of the words: Mongol (in English Mongolia, in German Mongolei, thus it was better to use only Mongol);
-
With at least one of the words: Geometrid OR Larentiinae OR Desmobathrinae OR Ennominae OR Archiearinae OR Geometrinae OR Oenochrominae OR Orthostixinae OR Sterrhinae;
As a result of the search, 184 literatures appeared, though many of them were about geometrid moths of Inner Mongolia. These we excluded from our list.
- Without the words: Inner Mongolia.
After excluding Inner Mongolia, 96 results remained and of these, 73 were relevant to our study.
Totally, we compiled 1973-point records of 388 geometrid species (Table S1). Of these records, 87 species were missing information on exact locations, these 87 species are used to estimate species richness and listed in the species checklist but are excluded from other analysis. We georeferenced species locations from literature and generated coordinates of each location with Google Earth [67]. After that we cross-checked each species name in “The Global Lepidoptera Names Index” [68]. Moreover, experts on geometrid moths such as Axel Hausmann, Jaan Viidalepp, Gunnar Brehm, Sven Erlacher, and Pasi Sihvonen validated most species of our checklist and provided further literatures.
In the next step we used the sampled data in order to estimate true species richness, to evaluate the distribution of species within Mongolia, and to identify regions that have been undersampled so far by species rarefaction. For these reasons, we transformed all species locations into 2° × 2° grid cells, resulting in 51 grid cells inhabited by 301 species. Of 301 species, 121 were unique species occuring only once within 51 grids. To estimate species richness we applied Good Turing Theory, which uses unique species for estimation [69]. We used the application SuperDuplicates (https://chao.shinyapps.io/SuperDuplicates/) for the estimation with the following setting: Data type: incidence data; Number of observed species (SOBs): 388; Number of uniques (Q1): 208 (we combined the 121 unique species with the former mentioned 87 species without locations).
Further we calculated rarefaction curves for single ecoregions to assess collection quality in different areas of Mongolia. Four ecoregions (Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra, Dzungarian Basin Semi-Desert, Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow and Sayan Alpine Meadows, and Tundra) were strongly under sampled, having species richness below 15, thus we excluded them from the analysis to avoid misleading interpretation.
To estimate the rarefaction curve across grid cells and ecoregions, we calculated interpolation and extrapolation of species richness using the ‘iNEXT’ package: Interpolation and extrapolation for species richness in R [70,71] with 0.95 confidence interval and prepared the rarefaction plots with ‘devtools’ package [72] and ggiNEXT function of ‘ggplot2′ package [73].
We performed Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling Analysis (NMDS) to check the dissimilarity of geometrid species composition between ecoregions based on the zero-adjusted Bray–Curtis dissimilarity measure using ‘phytomosaic/ecole’ and ‘vegan’ package [74,75,76]. For estimation of pairwise similarities between ecoregions, we calculated the estimated abundance based Soerensen Index by abundance data using online program SpadeR [77]. We preferred Soerensen Index over Jaccard Index, while the result was a little bit higher than Jaccard. This estimated abundance based index can detect unseen shared species and is appropriate to evaluate beta diversity of samples under sampling bias [78].
We used 19 Bioclim data with 30 arc seconds resolution as climatic variables for the region [79]. We extracted these variables for the fourteen ecoregions. Ecoregion GIS data for Mongolia were downloaded from The Nature Conservancy (TNC) [80]. In two ecoregions no geometrid moths were found, namely, Khangai Mountains Conifer Forests and Sayan Intermontane Steppe (Figure 1). We thus excluded these ecoregions from the further analysis. To check for strong linear dependencies among explanatory variables we computed the variance inflation factor (VIF) for each variable in R package ‘vegan’. We excluded variables with VIF values higher than 10 [81] (Table 1). We chose the most significant environmental variables with forward selection method by using vegan’s ‘ordistep’ function [81]. Variables selected by forward selection method were fitted into the ordination plot using vegan’s ‘entfit’ function.
All analysis were performed in R [82] and most graphs were made with package ‘ggplot2′ [73].

3. Results

Altogether, we recorded 388 geometrid species of six subfamilies: Archiearinae, Desmobathrinae, Ennominae, Geometrinae, Larentiinae, and Sterrhinae (Appendix A Table A1). The most species-rich subfamily was Larentiinae with 203 species, while we recorded only one species in the subfamily Desmobathrinae. For 301 species with exact location data (Table S1), we recorded species richness within 2° × 2° grid cells in whole Mongolia (Figure 2).
Species richness was highest in the northern central part of the country, with 133 species recorded near Darkhan-Uul Aimag and the capital Ulaanbaatar. Four most frequently recorded species were Rhodostrophia jacularia (in n = 32 grids), Scopula beckeraria (n = 18) Scopula albiceraria (n = 17), and Horisme aquata (n = 17).
As a result of the Good–Turing theory, estimated species richness for whole Mongolia was 663.19 with 0.95 confidence interval (606.80–734.12), which is nearly double the observed species richness (Q2.est = 78.51; se = 32.31; Undetected # species= 275.19; Undetected percentage (%) = 41.49). Also, we constructed a sample-based interpolation and extrapolation curve of 301 species with exact reported location within 51 grids. The interpolated and extrapolated estimators of species richness show similar results (Figure 3), the curve was not asymptotic, indicating under-sampling of the communities.
In the next step we used the fourteen Mongolian ecoregions (Figure 1) to investigate the distribution of the sampled geometrid species in more detail. The most species-rich ecoregion was Daurian Forest Steppe with 142 species, while Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow was the lowest in species richness with only three species of geometrid moths (Figure 4). One species (Rhodostrophia jacularia) occurred in 10 ecoregions, there were five further generalist species (Euphyia unangulata, Eupithecia nephelata, Scopula albiceraria, Scopula beckeraria) that occurred in eight to nine ecoregions. In contrast, 126 species were recorded only in one ecoregion. Four ecoregions were clearly under-sampled (Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra, Dzungarian Basin Semi-Desert, Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow, Sayan Alpine Meadows and Tundra) thus to avoid misleading interpretation, we excluded those ecoregions from further analysis.
Interpolation and extrapolation curves of particular ecoregions differ in their shapes, thus indicating different “sample quality”. Curves of Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert, Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe, Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, and Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe are not asymptotic, only half of the estimated maximum species richness is sampled; while curves of Daurian Forest Steppe, Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe and Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests are half asymptotic, thus tending to increase, while the curve of Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests is flattening, thus pointing to complete sampling of the moth community (Figure 5).
For assessment of beta-diversity, we calculated estimates of the abundance-based Sorensen Index between ecoregions (Table 2). We excluded ecoregions with fewer than 20 species to avoid sampling bias in similarity analysis. The highest pairwise estimated Sorensen Similarity Index was between Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe and Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe (βs = 0.942), while the lowest were between Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests and both of Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe (βs = 0.076).
An NMDS ordination biplot (stress = 0.05) shows two separate groups of geometrid species communities within ecoregions (Figure 6). Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert, Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe, Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, and Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe are clustered in the first group, Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests, Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Daurian Forest Steppe, Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe, and Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests are grouped in the second group. Precipitation was positively correlated with NMDS1, while temperature was positively correlated with NMDS2, both correlations were highly significant (p < 0.01). Number of records was positively correlated with both axes but was not significant (Table 3).

4. Discussion

In this study, we compiled a geometrid species checklist for Mongolia, examined species richness and diversity of geometrid communities among ecoregions. In addition, we investigated which environmental variables impact the distribution of geometrid moths. Compiling a species checklist on geometrid moths from a variety of sources published since 1892 was quite challenging, as names of species and locations were changing over the years, while sample efforts in different studies and areas differed considerably. Despite all our efforts we may not have included all species recorded in Mongolia in our list.
In total, we found 1973 records of 388 geometrid species of six subfamilies, but these records were not evenly sampled. The sample-based interpolation and extrapolation curve of gridded sample was not asymptotic, indicating that our records do not represent the whole potential geometrid fauna in Mongolia (Figure 3). Species richness for whole Mongolia was estimated as 663.19 species with Good–Turing theory and this estimated species richness was nearly double the observed species richness. These results confirm the rarefaction analysis and show that our inventory of geometrid moths in Mongolia is still incomplete, with less than 60% of the estimated species being recorded. The fact that countrywide diversity was highest in the grid cell of the capital draws further attention towards an obvious sampling bias with undersampling for the rest of the country. Moreover, we expect to find species of two other subfamilies, Orthostixinae and Alsophilinae in Mongolia. Species of these subfamilies were recorded in adjacent areas, such as in Kazakhstan and in China [37]. However, according to Müller et al. Alsophilinae is transferred to Ennominae, while the subfamily status of Orthostixinae is still not clear [62].
Given the huge size of Mongolia the estimated richness of 663 geometrid species for the whole country seems to be not high. But we wanted to compare the species richness of Mongolia with species richness of other countries similar in size. Norway + Sweden + Finland (1,173,940 km2) together are similar in size to Mongolia (1,564,000 km2). Altogether, for these countries, 341 geometrid species are recorded [84]. If we compare observed species richness (388) of Mongolia with the richness of those countries, it is almost similar; if we compare estimated species richness (663), it is almost double.
However, Scandinavia is an area at high latitudes, with harsh climate, not really suited for an ectotherm group like moths. Further south, Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands together, have 589 geometrid species (According to a personal information of Javier Gastón, one of the authors of the paper, due to scientific efforts the total number of Geometridae recorded on Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is now 605 species.) [85] and their areas (596,740 km2 + 4564 km2) are almost three times smaller than the landlocked area of Mongolia, which is situated at higher latitude. Comparisons between distant countries are always somewhat lacking, but no figures on geometrid species richness are available for the countries in Inner Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan).
The most frequently recorded species, which occurred in 10 ecoregions of Mongolia, was Rhodostrophia jacularia, an inhabitant of steppe and semi-desert [34,86]. Sihvonen and Nupponen [87] studied female wing shape of this species, but we could not find other studies related to the biology of this species.
Most records were found in Daurian Forest Steppe, Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe, and Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland. For many ecoregions, rarefaction curves were not asymptotic, thus revealing that sampling there was incomplete. Two ecoregions have no geometrid moth records at all and were thus excluded from analysis, namely Khangai Mountains Conifer Forests and Sayan Intermontane Steppe. The less studied areas comprise higher altitude areas from central Mongolia, as well as border regions. Sampling in these ecoregions, many of them with high habitat heterogeneity, will certainly expand our checklist.
To assess beta diversity among these unevenly sampled groups we used an estimator for Soerenson similarity that includes unseen species in the calculation [70]. The results, on the one hand, reflect the high habitat heterogeneity of Mongolia, with is steep ecological north-south gradient and the diverse biomes of the country that promote high beta diversity (Table 1). On the other hand, it proved that ecoregions that include similar biomes had higher similarity of moth communities, a result corroborated by NMDS. The most similar ecoregions were Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe and Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe that adjoin each other (βs = 0.942).
In NMDS, ecoregions were grouped in two big groups. The first group included Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert, Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe, Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe and Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, while in the second group there were Daurian Forest Steppe, Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests, Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe, and Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests. The geographically nearest ecoregions were grouped together, and also the ecoregions included in the same group belonged to mostly same biome type (Table 1). The first group comprised mostly Deserts and Xeric Shrublands except Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, while three ecoregions of the second group belonged to Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands.
Environmental variables that shaped species distribution were nominated by forward selection in NMDS and included annual precipitation and maximum temperature of warmest quarter. Number of records was also selected as variable, but only temperature and precipitation were significant in NMDS, thus corroborating the general robustness of our analysis, which was less influenced by sample effort. The aforementioned groups of ecoregions in NMDS differ along the precipitation gradient and within groups in temperature, e.g., the montane forests regions of both groups have lower values of NMDS2.
In a study on Borneo, geometrid moths showed a similar relationship with precipitation and temperature [88]. Temperature has also been a major impact on geometrid species distribution in the Andes [89]. Moreover, habitat disturbance played a big role in shaping the geometrid moth ensemble in northern Borneo [90]. Similarly, grazing proved to be a factor influencing community pattern in Mongolian moths [4]. Temperature, rainfall and habitat disturbance are impacted by climate change and anthropgenic influence, so we expect future changes within the Mongolian geometrid communities. The species list we present here can be a tool helping to monitor these changes.
Finally, we have to admit that our study has a few weaknesses. We compiled records only from literature (we apologize if we missed any) due to limited time and funding. A total of 87 of the 388 species in our checklist are still missing an exact location. This information may be available in the museum collections pinned to the respective specimens. A detailed research in museums would have certainly brought more records and species. In addition, all our records were not systematically collected, which might affect the statistical analysis. The mere fact that data were sampled over a long period of time in different research projects, with different ways of sampling certainly impacts the value of a statistical analysis. For example, in our field study [4], we used UV light, but in other studies normal light bulbs were used, sometimes even moths have even been collected during day time. Together with the general problem of undersampling, these points hamper a more detailed analysis of the Mongolian geometrid communities at the present time.
Nevertheless, due to our study, future directions of research on Mongolian Geometridae have become more clear: geometrid moths are really under-studied in Mongolia. We found two unsampled and four extremely under-sampled ecoregions and for all ecoregions expected species numbers were higher than recorded ones. So, we expect to find many more amazing moth species in future collections in the respective regions.

5. Conclusions

In total, 1973 records of 388 species were recorded, but we also expect that many more species will be recorded in the future in more elaborated sampling designs, especially from locations of southern, eastern and western Mongolia. Despite the fact that our compiled data is not good enough to analyze the distribution and diversity pattern in full detail, our study could reveal the knowledge gaps and undersampled areas, provide a first estimate of the approximate species number in whole Mongolia (n = 663), visualize the currently recorded distribution and diversity pattern of geometrid moths of Mongolia and evaluate the main environmental factors that shape the communities.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/12/5/186/s1, Table S1: Occurrence data of geometrid moths compiled from Mongolia.

Author Contributions

K.E., B.B. and M.P. designed research. K.E. performed research, analyzed data and wrote the paper with inputs from M.P. and B.B. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

K.E. funded by DAAD (Research Grants Doctoral Programme in Germany, 2017/18 (57299294)). K.E. and B.B. were partly supported by the Taylor Family-Asia Foundation Endowed Chair in Ecology and Conservation Biology. This publication was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the University of Bayreuth in the funding programme Open Access Publishing.

Acknowledgments

We thank Reinhold Stahlmann for his support in GIS techniques and are grateful to our colleagues from the Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. We would like to express our deepest appreciation to anonymous referees for their detailed comments and useful suggestions, as these comments and suggestions led us to a significant improvement of the work and opened helpful contacts. We are grateful for Gunnar Brehm, Jena, for his kind assistance in providing important literature. We thank Javier Gastón, who provided us with updated information on the geometrid checklist of Iberian Peninsula. Finally, we deeply thank Axel Hausmann, Jaan Viidalepp, Sven Erlacher and Pasi Sihvonen for the review of the species checklist, their advise and provision of literatures.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

Table A1. Checklist of geometrid moths in Mongolia. Note that we conducted all analysis at species level. Here subspecies are listed to show compiled data in more detail. The listed references include in most cases articles with location information.
Table A1. Checklist of geometrid moths in Mongolia. Note that we conducted all analysis at species level. Here subspecies are listed to show compiled data in more detail. The listed references include in most cases articles with location information.
SubfamilySpeciesAuthorYearReference
ArchiearinaeArchiearis nothaHübner1802[34]
ArchiearinaeArchiearis partheniasLinnaeus1761[34]
Archiearinae Archiearis parthenias sajanaProut1912[46]
Archiearinae Leucobrephos middendorfiiMénétriés1858[41]
DesmobathrinaeGypsochroa renitidataHübner1817[57]
EnnominaeAbraxas grossulariataLinnaeus1758[21,34,46,63,65]
EnnominaeAbraxas grossulariata dsungaricaWehrli1939[38]
EnnominaeAlcis deversataStaudinger1892[34,39,46,63,65]
EnnominaeAlcis extinctariaEversmann1851[23,34,36,39,65,91]
EnnominaeAlcis jubataThunberg1788[37]
EnnominaeAlcis repandataLinnaeus1758[65]
EnnominaeAlloharpina conjungensAlphéraky1892[33]
EnnominaeAmraica superansButler1878[33]
EnnominaeAngerona prunariaLinnaeus1758[24,34,46,63,65]
EnnominaeAngerona prunaria kenteariaStaudinger1892[39]
EnnominaeAngerona prunaria mongoligenaBryk1949[62]
EnnominaeApeira syringariaLinnaeus1758[63]
EnnominaeApocheima hispidariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34]
EnnominaeApocolotois almatensisDjakonov1952[39]
EnnominaeApocolotois smirnoviRomanoff1885[39]
EnnominaeArichanna barteliProut1915[32,45]
EnnominaeArichanna melanariaLinnaeus1758[34,46,65,91]
EnnominaeArichanna melanaria decolorataStaudinger1892[45]
EnnominaeArichanna melanaria praeolivinaWehrli1933[39]
EnnominaeAspitates conspersariaStaudinger1901[23,45]
EnnominaeAspitates curvariaEversmann1852[1,8,14]
EnnominaeAspitates forbesiMunroe1963[65]
EnnominaeAspitates gilvariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,24,34,36,63,91]
EnnominaeAspitates gilvaria minimusVojnits1975[39]
EnnominaeAspitates insignisAlphéraky1883[36,39]
EnnominaeAspitates kozhantchikoviMunroe1963[36,65]
EnnominaeAspitates mongolicusVojnits1975[39,65]
EnnominaeAspitates mundatariaStoll1782[34,46,63,65]
EnnominaeAspitates mundataria uncinatariaVojnits1975[39]
EnnominaeAspitates obscurataWehrli1953[33,34,39]
EnnominaeAspitates staudingeriVojnits1975[39]
EnnominaeAspitates taylorae sibiricaDjakonov1955[36,65]
EnnominaeAspitates tristrigariaBremer & Grey1853[34,37]
EnnominaeAstegania honestaProut1908[34]
EnnominaeBiston betulariaLinnaeus1758[34,46,63,91]
EnnominaeBiston betularia sibiricusFuchs1899[37]
EnnominaeCabera exanthemataScopoli1763[23,34,46,65]
EnnominaeCabera exanthemata hamicaWehrli1939[39]
EnnominaeCabera pusariaLinnaeus1758[34,39,63]
EnnominaeCalcaritis pallidaHedemann1881[47]
EnnominaeChariaspilates formosariaEversmann1837[37]
EnnominaeCharissa agnitariaStaudinger1897[55]
EnnominaeCharissa ambiguataDuponchel1830[34,36,46,65]
EnnominaeCharissa ambiguata ophthalmicataLederer1853[39]
EnnominaeCharissa beljaeviErlacher et al., 20172017[55]
EnnominaeCharissa bidentatusShchetkin & Viidalepp1980[46]
EnnominaeCharissa creperariaErschoff1877[34,55,65]
EnnominaeCharissa difficilisAlphéraky1883[21,24,34,39,65]
EnnominaeCharissa gozmanyiVojnits1975[14]
EnnominaeCharissa macguffiniSmiles1979[65]
EnnominaeCharissa ochrofasciataStaudinger1895[21,30,34,36,39,55,65]
EnnominaeCharissa remmiViidalepp1988[56,63]
EnnominaeCharissa sibiriataGuenée1858[21,24,30,34,36]
EnnominaeCharissa subsplendidariaWehrli1922[63,92]
EnnominaeCharissa turfosariaWehrli1922[30,34,39,45,62]
EnnominaeCharissa vastariaStaudinger1892[30,34]
EnnominaeChiasmia aestimariaHübner1809[65]
EnnominaeChiasmia aestimaria kuldschanaWehrli1940[39]
EnnominaeChiasmia clathrataLinnaeus1758[23,24,26,34,36,46,63,65,91]
EnnominaeChiasmia clathrata djakonoviKardakoff1928[38,39]
EnnominaeChiasmia saburrariaEversmann1851[21,34,65]
EnnominaeChiasmia saburraria kenteataStaudinger1892[38]
EnnominaeCleora cinctariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,46,63]
EnnominaeColotois pennariaLinnaeus1760[46]
EnnominaeDeileptenia ribeataClerck1759[63]
EnnominaeDigrammia rippertariaDuponchel1830[34]
EnnominaeEctropis crepusculariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,46]
EnnominaeEilicrinia oriasWehrli1933[45]
EnnominaeElophos banghaasiWehrli1922[30,34,45]
EnnominaeEmaturga atomariaLinnaeus1758[23,24,34,36,46,65]
EnnominaeEmaturga atomaria krassnojarscensisFuchs1899[39]
EnnominaeEnnomos autumnariaWerneburg1859[46]
EnnominaeEpione repandariaHufnagel1767[34]
EnnominaeEpione vespertariaLinnaeus1767[34,39]
EnnominaeEpirranthis diversataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[63]
EnnominaeErannis jacobsoniDjakonov1926[34,46,65]
EnnominaeGnophopsodos ravistriolariaWehrli1922[36]
EnnominaeGnophopsodos ravistriolaria ravistriolariaWehrli1922[55]
EnnominaeGnophopsodos stemmatariaEversmann1848[39]
EnnominaeGnophopsodos tholerariaPüngeler1901[50]
EnnominaeGnophos bipartitusVojnits1975[39]
EnnominaeGnophos rubefactariaPüngeler1902[37]
EnnominaeHeliomata glareariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[46]
EnnominaeHypomecis punctinalisScopoli1763[46]
EnnominaeHypomecis roborariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34,39,63]
EnnominaeHypoxystis pluviariaFabricius1787[34,46,63]
EnnominaeIsturgia altaicaVojnits1978[43]
EnnominaeIsturgia arenaceariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[63,91]
EnnominaeIsturgia arenacearia mongolicaVojnits1974[38]
EnnominaeIsturgia falsariaAlphéraky1892[34]
EnnominaeIsturgia halituariaGuenée1858[48]
EnnominaeIsturgia kaszabiVojnits1974[38]
EnnominaeIsturgia murinariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,36]
EnnominaeIsturgia murinaria uralicaWehrli1937[63]
EnnominaeJankowskia bituminariaLederer1853[65]
EnnominaeJankowskia bituminaria raddensisWehrli1941[93]
EnnominaeLomaspilis marginataLinnaeus1758[23,34,46,65]
EnnominaeLomaspilis opis amurensisHedemann1881[38]
EnnominaeLomographa buraeticaStaudinger1892[34]
EnnominaeLomographa temerataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[46]
EnnominaeLycia hirtariaClerck1759[63]
EnnominaeLycia lapponariaBoisduval1840[37]
EnnominaeMacaria alternataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,46,91]
EnnominaeMacaria artesiariaDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,38]
EnnominaeMacaria brunneataThunberg1784[36,38,91]
EnnominaeMacaria circumflexariaEversmann1848[38,46,63,91]
EnnominaeMacaria costimaculataGraeser1888[34]
EnnominaeMacaria latefasciataStaudinger1896[21,34]
EnnominaeMacaria liturataClerck1759[65]
EnnominaeMacaria liturata pressariaChristoph1893[37]
EnnominaeMacaria loricariaEversmann1837[36]
EnnominaeMacaria notataLinnaeus1758[34,63]
EnnominaeMacaria notata kirinaWehrli1940[38]
EnnominaeMacaria serenariaStaudinger1896[21,34]
EnnominaeMacaria signariaHübner1809[38,46]
EnnominaeMacaria wauariaLinnaeus1758[34,36]
EnnominaeMegalycinia strictariaLederer1853[21,34,39,46,63]
EnnominaeMegametopon piperatumAlphéraky1892[34,39,65]
EnnominaeNarraga fasciolariaHufnagel1767[34,63]
EnnominaeOdontopera bidentataClerck1759[21,35,40,47,66]
EnnominaeOdontopera bidentata exsulTchetrerikov1905[36,39]
EnnominaeOdontopera bidentata ravaVojnits1975[39,65]
EnnominaeOurapteryx persicaMénétriés1832[34]
EnnominaeOurapteryx sambucariaLinnaeus1758[63,65]
EnnominaePerconia strigillariaHübner1787[46,63]
EnnominaePetrophora kaszabiVojnits1978[43]
EnnominaePhaselia narynariaOberthür1913[49]
EnnominaePhaselia serrulariaEversmann1847[65]
EnnominaePhthonandria emariaBremer1864[39]
EnnominaePlagodis dolabrariaLinnaeus1767[34]
EnnominaePlagodis pulverariaLinnaeus1758[21,34,65]
EnnominaePlagodis pulveraria singularisVojnits1975[39]
EnnominaePleogynopteryx bituminariaLederer1853[21,34,39]
EnnominaePseudopanthera maculariaLinnaeus1758[34]
EnnominaePseudopanthera macularia crypticaBeljaev1997[94]
EnnominaeSelenia dentariaFabricius1775[39]
EnnominaeSelenia dentaria alpestrisWehrli1940[37]
EnnominaeSelenia ononicaKostjuk1991[37]
EnnominaeSelenia sordidariaLeech1897[39]
EnnominaeSelenia tetralunariaHufnagel1767[34,36,46,63]
EnnominaeSiona lineataScopoli1763[23,26,34,36,39,46,63,65]
EnnominaeSpartopteryx kindermannariaStaudinger1871[36,39,46]
EnnominaeXandrames dholariaMoore1868[33]
EnnominaeYezognophos vittariaThunberg1792[65]
GeometrinaeChlorissa viridataLinnaeus1758[34]
GeometrinaeDyschloropsis imparariaGuenée1858[21,24,34,40,41,65]
GeometrinaeGeometra papilionariaLinnaeus1758[40,46,63]
GeometrinaeGeometra papilionaria herbaceariaMénétriés1859[41,65]
GeometrinaeHemistola chrysoprasariaEsper1794[46,63]
GeometrinaeHemistola chrysoprasaria lissasProut1912[40]
GeometrinaeHemistola zimmermanniHedemann1879[34,40,41]
GeometrinaeHemithea aestivariaHübner1799[46]
GeometrinaeJodis lacteariaLinnaeus1758[37]
GeometrinaeMicroloxia herbariaHübner1813[34,65]
GeometrinaeMicroloxia herbaria advolataEversmann1837[41]
GeometrinaeThalera chlorosariaGraeser1890[34,40,41,91]
GeometrinaeThalera fimbrialisScopoli1763[63]
GeometrinaeThetidia atycheProut1935[40,41]
GeometrinaeThetidia chlorophyllariaHedemann1879[37]
GeometrinaeThetidia correspondensAlpheraky1883[49]
GeometrinaeThetidia volgariaGuenée1858[21,34,40,46,65]
GeometrinaeThetidia volgaria mongolicaStaudinger1897[41]
LarentiinaeAcasis appensataEversmann1842[46,65]
LarentiinaeAnticlea badiataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,63]
LarentiinaeAnticlea derivataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[24,34,46,63]
LarentiinaeAplocera plagiata roddiVasilenko1995[59]
LarentiinaeBaptria tibialeEsper1804[34,42]
LarentiinaeCamptogramma bilineataLinnaeus1758[46]
LarentiinaeCarsia sororiataHübner1813[23,34,36]
LarentiinaeCatarhoe cuculataHufnagel1767[37,46,59,63]
LarentiinaeCatarhoe rubidataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[46]
LarentiinaeChloroclysta miataLinnaeus1758[36]
LarentiinaeCidaria distinctataStaudinger1892[37]
LarentiinaeCidaria fulvataForster1771[34,44,63,65]
LarentiinaeCoenocalpe lapidataHübner1809[21,23,34,36,46,65]
LarentiinaeCoenotephria korschunoviViidalepp1976[34]
LarentiinaeColostygia aptataHübner1813[34,65]
LarentiinaeCosmorhoe ocellataLinnaeus1758[37]
LarentiinaeDysstroma citrataLinnaeus1761[34,46,63,65]
LarentiinaeDysstroma citrata septentrionalisHeydemann1929[36]
LarentiinaeDysstroma citratum kamtshadalariumBeljaev & Vasilenko2002[48]
LarentiinaeDysstroma infuscataTengström1869[65]
LarentiinaeDysstroma latefasciataBlöcker1908[34,44,65]
LarentiinaeDysstroma pseudimmanataHeydemann1929[31,34,44]
LarentiinaeDysstroma truncataHufnagel1767[23,31,34,44,65,91]
LarentiinaeDysstroma truncata transbaicalensisHeydemann1929[36]
LarentiinaeEcliptopera capitataHerrich-Schäffer1839[63]
LarentiinaeEcliptopera dimitaProut1938[37]
LarentiinaeEcliptopera umbrosariaMotschulsky1861[34]
LarentiinaeEcliptoptera oblongataGuenée1858[44]
LarentiinaeElectrophaes chimakalepariaOberthür1893[44]
LarentiinaeElectrophaes corylataThunberg1792[46,65]
LarentiinaeEntephria caesiataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,36,44]
LarentiinaeEntephria kuznetzoviViidalepp1976[34,45]
LarentiinaeEntephria tzygankoviWehrli1929[36]
LarentiinaeEpirrhoe alternataMüller1764[23,34,36]
LarentiinaeEpirrhoe hastulataHübner1790[34,36,44,46]
LarentiinaeEpirrhoe hastulata reductaDjakonov1929[48]
LarentiinaeEpirrhoe pupillataThunberg1788[23,34,36,44,46,63,65,91]
LarentiinaeEpirrhoe tristataLinnaeus1758[23,34,46]
LarentiinaeEpirrita autumnataBorkhausen1794[21,34,34]
LarentiinaeEpirrita autumnata smetaniniBeljaev & Vasilenko2002[48]
LarentiinaeEpirrita autumnata tunkunataBang-Haas1910[36]
LarentiinaeEsakiopteryx volitansButler1878[44]
LarentiinaeEulithis mellinataFabricius1787[34]
LarentiinaeEulithis populataLinnaeus1758[36,44,63,91]
LarentiinaeEulithis prunataLinnaeus1758[34,44,46]
LarentiinaeEulithis pyraliataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34,44,46,63,65]
LarentiinaeEulithis pyropataHübner1809[91]
LarentiinaeEulithis testataLinnaeus1761[23,34,44,46,63]
LarentiinaeEuphyia coangulataProut1914[21,23,24,34,36,44,65]
LarentiinaeEuphyia intersectaStaudinger1882[21,23,34]
LarentiinaeEuphyia unangulataHaworth1809[34,46,63,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia selinataHerrich-Schäffer1861[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia absinthiataClerck1759[95]
LarentiinaeEupithecia actaeataWalderdorff1869[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia addictataDietze1908[37]
LarentiinaeEupithecia aggregataGuenée1858[37]
LarentiinaeEupithecia amplexataChristoph1881[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia anikiniMironov & Galsworthy2014[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia aporiaVojnits1975[41,45]
LarentiinaeEupithecia assimilataDoubleday1856[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia bastelbergeriDietze1910[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia biornataChristoph1867[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia bohatschiStaudinger1897[25,34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia carpophilataStaudinger1897[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia catharinaeVojnits1969[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia centaureataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,63,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia chinganaWehrli1926[45]
LarentiinaeEupithecia corroborataDietze1908[36]
LarentiinaeEupithecia denotataHübner1813[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia despectariaLederer1853[34,37]
LarentiinaeEupithecia dissertataPüngeler1905[34,36,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia djakonoviShchetkin1956[37]
LarentiinaeEupithecia dolosaVojnits1977[45]
LarentiinaeEupithecia ericeataRambur1833[52,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia extensariaFreyer1844[36,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia fennoscandicaKnaben1949[36,96]
LarentiinaeEupithecia fuscicostataChristoph1887[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia graciliataDietze1906[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia hannemanniVojnits & De Laever1973[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia holtiViidalepp1973[34,65,97]
LarentiinaeEupithecia illaborataDietze1904[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia impolitaVojnits1980[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia incultaVojnits1975[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia indigataHübner1813[63]
LarentiinaeEupithecia innotataHufnagel1767[21,34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia intricataZetterstedt1839[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia inveterataVojnits1987[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia irriguataHübner1813[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia kozloviViidalepp1973[34,97]
LarentiinaeEupithecia kuldschaensisStaudinger1892[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia laboriosaVojnits1977[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia lariciataFreyer1841[34,36,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia leptogrammataStaudinger1882[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia linariataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia mimaMironov1989[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia minusculataAlphéraky1883[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia mongolicaVojnits1974[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia morosaVojnits1976[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia munguataMironov & Galsworthy2014[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia necessariaVojnits1977[41,45]
LarentiinaeEupithecia nephelataStaudinger1897[21,23,34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia nobilitataStaudinger1882[36,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia olgaeMironov1986[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia opisthographataDietze1906[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia perfuscataVojnits1975[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia pernotataGuenée1858[48]
LarentiinaeEupithecia pimpinellataHübner1813[34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia propriaVojnits1977[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia pusillataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia pygmaeataHübner1799[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia recensDietze1904[34,36]
LarentiinaeEupithecia relaxataDietze1904[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia repentinaVojnits & De Laever1978[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia rubellataDietze1904[41,45]
LarentiinaeEupithecia saisanariaStaudinger1882[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia satyrataHübner1813[36]
LarentiinaeEupithecia selinataHerrich-Schäffer1861[95]
LarentiinaeEupithecia simpliciataHaworth1809[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia sinuosariaEversmann1848[23,34,36]
LarentiinaeEupithecia subbrunneataDietze1904[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia subexiguataVojnits1974[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia subfuscataHaworth1809[34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia suboxydataStaudinger1897[65,98]
LarentiinaeEupithecia subtacinctaHampson 1895[37]
LarentiinaeEupithecia subumbrataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia succenturiataLinnaeus1758[95]
LarentiinaeEupithecia sutiliataChristoph1877[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia thalictrataPüngeler1902[52]
LarentiinaeEupithecia undataFreyer1840[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia veratrariaHerrich-Schäffer1848[95]
LarentiinaeEupithecia vicinaMironov1989[65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia virgaureataDoubleday1861[21,23,34,65]
LarentiinaeEupithecia vulgataHaworth1809[21,23,34]
LarentiinaeEupithecia vulgata lepsariaStaudinger1882[37]
LarentiinaeEupithecis unedonataMabille1868[33]
LarentiinaeEustroma reticulatum obsoletaDjakonov1929[48]
LarentiinaeGagitodes sagittataFabricius1787[44,46,63]
LarentiinaeGagitodes sagittata albifluaProut1939[48]
LarentiinaeHorisme aemulataHübner1813[23,34,46,65]
LarentiinaeHorisme aquataHübner1813[23,34,36,46,65,91]
LarentiinaeHorisme falcataBang-Haas1907[25,27,34,36,63,65]
LarentiinaeHorisme incurvariaErschoff1877[34,36,65]
LarentiinaeHorisme lucillataGuenée1858[23,34]
LarentiinaeHorisme parcataPüngeler1909[65]
LarentiinaeHorisme scotosiataGuenée1858[21,23,34,63,65]
LarentiinaeHorisme tersataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[34,65]
LarentiinaeHorisme tersata tetricataGuenée1858[37]
LarentiinaeHorisme vitalbataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[21,23,34,36,46,65]
LarentiinaeHydrelia flammeolariaHufnagel1767[44,46]
LarentiinaeHydria cervinalisScopoli1763[34]
LarentiinaeHydria undulataLinnaeus1758[34,65]
LarentiinaeHydriomena furcataThunberg1784[21,23,34,36,44]
LarentiinaeHydriomena impluviataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[21,34,36]
LarentiinaeHydriomena impluviata djakonoviBeljaev & Vasilenko2002[48]
LarentiinaeHydriomena ruberataFreyer1831[65]
LarentiinaeJuxtephria consentariaFreyer1846[36,44,65]
LarentiinaeKyrtolitha obstinataStaudinger1892[34]
LarentiinaeLaciniodes denigrata abiensProut1938[33]
LarentiinaeLampropteryx albigirataKollar1848[65]
LarentiinaeLampropteryx jamezaButler1898[37]
LarentiinaeLampropteryx minnaButler1881[44,45,65]
LarentiinaeLampropteryx suffumataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[63]
LarentiinaeLeptostegna tenerataChristoph1881[99]
LarentiinaeLithostege coassata mongolicaVojnits1978[42]
LarentiinaeLithostege coassata ochraceataStaudinger1897[42,65]
LarentiinaeLithostege mesoleucataPüngeler1899[34,42]
LarentiinaeLithostege pallescensStaudinger1897[21,34]
LarentiinaeLobophora halterataHufnagel1767[44,46]
LarentiinaeMartania taeniataStephens1831[44]
LarentiinaeMesoleuca albicillataLinnaeus1758[34,37,44,46]
LarentiinaeMesotype verberataScopoli1763[44]
LarentiinaeNebula lamataStaudinger1897[21,34]
LarentiinaeNebula mongoliataStaudinger1897[21,34,44,65]
LarentiinaeOdezia atrataLinnaeus1758[23,34]
LarentiinaeOrthonama obstipataFabricius1794[34]
LarentiinaePelurga comitataLinnaeus1758[34,44,63,65]
LarentiinaePelurga taczanowskiariaOberthür1880[63,91]
LarentiinaePerizoma alchemillataLinnaeus1758[34,36,44]
LarentiinaePerizoma bifaciataHaworth1809[65]
LarentiinaePerizoma blandiataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[23,34]
LarentiinaePerizoma hydrataTreitschke1829[36,44,65]
LarentiinaePerizoma minorataTreitschke1828[46]
LarentiinaePhibalapteryx virgataHufnagel1767[34,36,42,91]
LarentiinaePhotoscotosia palaearcticaStaudinger1882[23,34]
LarentiinaePlemyria rubiginataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[34,44,65]
LarentiinaePlesioscotosia pulchrataAlphéraky1883[23,34]
LarentiinaePovilasia kashgharaMoore1878[51]
LarentiinaePseudentephria remmiViidalepp1976[35]
LarentiinaePseudobaptria corydalariaGraeser1889[34]
LarentiinaeRheumaptera hastataLinnaeus1758[34,36,44,46,65]
LarentiinaeRheumaptera subhastataNolcken1870[36]
LarentiinaeRheumaptera subhastata commixtaMatsumura1925[48]
LarentiinaeSchistostege nubilariaHübner1799[23,34,36,42,65]
LarentiinaeScotopteryx chenopodiataLinnaeus1758[23,34,46,63,65]
LarentiinaeScotopteryx chenopodiata sibiricaBang-Haas1907[42]
LarentiinaeScotopteryx golovushkiniKostjuk1991[65]
LarentiinaeScotopteryx sinensisAlphéraky1883[23,34]
LarentiinaeScotopteryx transbaicalicaDjakonov1955[28,34,36]
LarentiinaeSpargania luctuataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34,44,63,65]
LarentiinaeStamnodes daniloviErschoff1877[21,23,34,36,42,65]
LarentiinaeStamnodes danilovi djakonoviAlphéraky1916[33]
LarentiinaeStamnodes pauperariaEversmann1848[65]
LarentiinaeThera obeliscataHübner1787[34,91]
LarentiinaeThera variataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34]
LarentiinaeTrichopterigia consobrinariaLeech1891[44]
LarentiinaeTrichopteryx carpinataBorkhausen1794[65]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe abrasariaHerrich-Schäffer1855[36,44,65]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe deflorataErschoff1877[23,34,44,65]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe montanataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[34,36,46]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe quadrifasiata tannuensisProut1924[45,63]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe sajanariaProut1914[36,44]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe sajanaria djakonoviVasilenko1995[100]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe spadiceariaDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[44,46]
LarentiinaeXanthorhoe stupida aridelaProut1937[37]
LarentiinaeZola terraneaButler1879[34]
SterrhinaeCleta jacutica (Axel Hausmann: probably only one Cleta species occurring in Mongolia)Viidalepp1976[36]
SterrhinaeCleta perpusillariaEversmann1847[65]
SterrhinaeCyclophora albipunctataHufnagel1767[46]
SterrhinaeCyclophora pendulariaClerck1759[46]
SterrhinaeGlossotrophia rufotinctataProut1913[49]
SterrhinaeHolarctias rufinariaStaudinger1861[58]
SterrhinaeIdaea aureolariaDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[23,34,46]
SterrhinaeIdaea biselata extinctaStaudinger1897[101]
SterrhinaeIdaea muricataHufnagel1967[34]
SterrhinaeIdaea muricata minorSterneck1727[40]
SterrhinaeIdaea nitidataHerrich-Schäffer1861[37]
SterrhinaeIdaea nudariaChristoph1881[37]
SterrhinaeIdaea pallidataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[34,40]
SterrhinaeIdaea rufariaHübner1799[65]
SterrhinaeIdaea rusticataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[40,63]
SterrhinaeIdaea serpentataHufnagel1767[23,34,36,41,63]
SterrhinaeIdaea straminataBorkhausen1794[34,91]
SterrhinaeIdaea straminata sibiricaDjakonov1926[40]
SterrhinaeOchodontia adustariaFischer de Waldheim1840[23,34,65]
SterrhinaeRhodometra sacrariaLinnaeus1767[34]
SterrhinaeRhodostrophia jaculariaHübner1813[21,23,34,36,40,41,63,65]
SterrhinaeRhodostrophia tyuguiVasilenko1998[64]
SterrhinaeRhodostrophia ustyuzhaniniVasilenko2006[49]
SterrhinaeRhodostrophia vibicariaClerck1759[34,46,63]
SterrhinaeScopula aequifasciataChristoph1881[47]
SterrhinaeScopula albicerariaHerrich-Schäffer1847[21,25,34,65]
SterrhinaeScopula albiceraria vitellinariaEversmann1851[40,41]
SterrhinaeScopula beckerariaLederer1853[34,40,41,63,65]
SterrhinaeScopula beckeraria amatariaWehrli1927[36,40,65]
SterrhinaeScopula cajanderiHerz1903[41,46]
SterrhinaeScopula caricariaReutti1853[46]
SterrhinaeScopula contramutataProut1920[34]
SterrhinaeScopula cumulataAlpheraky1883[65]
SterrhinaeScopula decorataDenis & Schiffermüller 1775[21,23,34,41,63,65]
SterrhinaeScopula decorata przewalskiiViidalepp1975[36,40,65]
SterrhinaeScopula dignataGuenée1858[34]
SterrhinaeScopula floslactataHaworth1809[37]
SterrhinaeScopula frigidariaMöschler1860[47]
SterrhinaeScopula immorataLinnaeus1758[23,34,36,40,46,63,65]
SterrhinaeScopula immutata contramutataProut1913[58]
SterrhinaeScopula impersonataWalker1861[34]
SterrhinaeScopula impersonata macescensButler1879[40,41]
SterrhinaeScopula incanataLinnaeus1758[34,41,65]
SterrhinaeScopula latelineataGraeser1892[49]
SterrhinaeScopula marginepunctataGoeze1781[23,34,63]
SterrhinaeScopula nigropunctataHufnagel1767[34]
SterrhinaeScopula nigropunctata subcandidataWalker1863[37]
SterrhinaeScopula ornataScopoli1763[34,41,46]
SterrhinaeScopula permutataStaudinger1897[34,39,65]
SterrhinaeScopula rubiginataHufnagel1767[34,40,41,63,65,91]
SterrhinaeScopula ternataSchrank1802[25,34,36,46]
SterrhinaeScopula tessellariaBoisduval1840[65]
SterrhinaeScopula umbelariaHübner1813[34,46,63]
SterrhinaeScopula umbelaria graeseriProut1935[41,65]
SterrhinaeScopula virgulataDenis & Schiffermüller1775[23,34,40,41,46,63,65,91]
SterrhinaeScopula virgulata substrigariaStaudinger1900[36]
SterrhinaeTimandra griseataPetersen1902[46]
SterrhinaeTimandra paraliasProut1935[34,40]
SterrhinaeTimandra recomptaProut1930[40,63]

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Figure 1. Mongolian 14 ecoregions with distribution of 1557 geometrid moth records (211 of 1973 records are missing exact locations, 205 records were sampled at the same location, but at different time period). For two small ecoregions (marked in gray), there is no scientific knowledge of geometrid moths.
Figure 1. Mongolian 14 ecoregions with distribution of 1557 geometrid moth records (211 of 1973 records are missing exact locations, 205 records were sampled at the same location, but at different time period). For two small ecoregions (marked in gray), there is no scientific knowledge of geometrid moths.
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Figure 2. A map of study region (Mongolia) with distribution of 2° × 2° grid cell records. Colors represent the species richness (n = 301) within grid cells.
Figure 2. A map of study region (Mongolia) with distribution of 2° × 2° grid cell records. Colors represent the species richness (n = 301) within grid cells.
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Figure 3. A sample-based interpolation and extrapolation curve of geometrid moths collected from Mongolia with 0.95 confidence interval. 51 grids were sampled with altogether 301 species. Axes X and Y represent the number of gridded samples and species richness, respectively.
Figure 3. A sample-based interpolation and extrapolation curve of geometrid moths collected from Mongolia with 0.95 confidence interval. 51 grids were sampled with altogether 301 species. Axes X and Y represent the number of gridded samples and species richness, respectively.
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Figure 4. Geometrid moth species richness of 14 ecoregions of Mongolia. Under-sampled ecoregions are Altai Alp, Dzungarian, Khangai, and Sayan Alp. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations: Alashan: Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert, Altai Alp: Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra, Altai Mont: Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, Dzungarian: Dzungarian Basin Semi-Desert, Daurian: Daurian Forest Steppe, Eastern: Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe, Gobi: Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, Great: Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe, Khangai: Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow, Mongolian: Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Sayan Alp: Sayan Alpine Meadows and Tundra, Sayan Mont: Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests, Selenge: Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe, Trans: Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests.
Figure 4. Geometrid moth species richness of 14 ecoregions of Mongolia. Under-sampled ecoregions are Altai Alp, Dzungarian, Khangai, and Sayan Alp. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations: Alashan: Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert, Altai Alp: Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra, Altai Mont: Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe, Dzungarian: Dzungarian Basin Semi-Desert, Daurian: Daurian Forest Steppe, Eastern: Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe, Gobi: Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe, Great: Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe, Khangai: Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow, Mongolian: Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland, Sayan Alp: Sayan Alpine Meadows and Tundra, Sayan Mont: Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests, Selenge: Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe, Trans: Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests.
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Figure 5. Sampling unit-based interpolation and extrapolation curves of ecoregions with 0.95 confidence interval. Axes X and Y axes represent the number of records and species richness, respectively. Ecoregions are jointly drawn on plots according to their grouping in the NMDS graph (Figure 6). Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4.
Figure 5. Sampling unit-based interpolation and extrapolation curves of ecoregions with 0.95 confidence interval. Axes X and Y axes represent the number of records and species richness, respectively. Ecoregions are jointly drawn on plots according to their grouping in the NMDS graph (Figure 6). Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4.
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Figure 6. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of 10 ecoregions of Mongolia according to their dissimilarity in geometrid moth species assemblage (zero-adjusted Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index for presence-absence data; stress 0.05). Significant variables are drawn in blue arrows. Temp: Maximum temperature of warmest month, Precip: Precipitation, Records: Number of records of geometrid moths. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4.
Figure 6. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of 10 ecoregions of Mongolia according to their dissimilarity in geometrid moth species assemblage (zero-adjusted Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index for presence-absence data; stress 0.05). Significant variables are drawn in blue arrows. Temp: Maximum temperature of warmest month, Precip: Precipitation, Records: Number of records of geometrid moths. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4.
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Table 1. List of the environmental [79] variables* for the fourteen ecoregions used in this study. All variables have been entered into forward selection method for selecting most important variables. The selected variables were later fitted in the Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling Analysis (NMDS). Colors refer to the map in Figure 1.
Table 1. List of the environmental [79] variables* for the fourteen ecoregions used in this study. All variables have been entered into forward selection method for selecting most important variables. The selected variables were later fitted in the Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling Analysis (NMDS). Colors refer to the map in Figure 1.
EcoregionsBio1Bio2Bio5Bio6Bio7Bio10Bio11Bio12Biome [83]
Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert5.114.128.6−20.34920.6−11.785Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra−4.512.317.1−28.145.210.3−20.3199Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai Montane Forest and Forest Steppe−1.813.120.5−26.847.313.4−18.5148Temperate Conifer Forests
Dzungarian Basin Semi-Desert3.91427.4−2350.419.6−13.991Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Daurian Forest Steppe−1.513.923.7−29.152.916−21306Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands
Eastern Gobi Desert Steppe3.313.427.6−22.550.119.8−14.7130Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gobi Lakes Valley Desert Steppe0.714.623.8−24.348.115.9−15.5141Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin Desert Steppe−1.613.524.2−31.755.916.6−23.1147Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Khangai Mountains Alpine Meadow−5.614.317.3−30.547.89.7−22.1261Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian Grassland0.313.625.4−26.451.817.6−18.7224Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands
Sayan Alpine Meadows and Tundra−8.413.616.3−34.951.28.5−27.3355Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Montane Coniferous Forests−5.113.719.2−31.350.411.4−23.5381Temperate Conifer Forests
Selenge-Orkhon Forest Steppe−3.214.320.6−29.750.312.9−21.4277Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands
Trans-Baikal Coniferous Forests−3.313.422.1−31.153.214.6−23.3366Boreal Forests/Taiga
*Environmental variables with VIF under 10. Bio1—Annual Mean Temperature [°C]; Bio2—Mean Diurnal Range [°C]; Bio5—Max Temperature [°C]; Bio6 - Min Temperature [°C]; Bio7—Temperature Annual Range [°C]; Bio10—Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter [°C]; Bio11—Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter [°C]; Bio12—Annual precipitation [mm].
Table 2. Pairwise estimates of similarity between ecoregions with online tool Spade [69]. Shown is the estimated abundance-based Sorensen Index. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4. Highest and lowest values in bold.
Table 2. Pairwise estimates of similarity between ecoregions with online tool Spade [69]. Shown is the estimated abundance-based Sorensen Index. Colors refer to the map in Figure 1. Ecoregion abbreviations as in Figure 4. Highest and lowest values in bold.
C12(i,j)AlashanAltaiDaurianEasternGobiGreatMongolianSayanSelengeTrans
Alashan10.5040.1840.5950.7160.4460.4330.0970.2060.244
Altai 10.4510.640.7420.7020.5230.3110.5940.445
Daurian 10.1880.3240.2670.6690.4990.7690.685
Eastern 10.9420.6440.5330.1270.4240.141
Gobi 10.80.6790.140.3710.076
Great 10.4970.3010.5440.139
Mongolian 10.4170.7190.522
Sayan 10.6310.447
Selenge 10.606
Trans 1
Table 3. NMDS vector fitted values. Temp: Max temperature of warmest month, Precipitation: Annual precipitation, Records: Number of records of geometrid moths.
Table 3. NMDS vector fitted values. Temp: Max temperature of warmest month, Precipitation: Annual precipitation, Records: Number of records of geometrid moths.
VariableNMDS1NMDS2r2Pr (> 0)
Temperature−0.322770.946480.74730.009
Precipitation0.97252−0.232810.91830.001
Records0.739240.673440.50960.095
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