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Using ISSR Genomic Fingerprinting to Study the Genetic Differentiation of Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Iran and Neighbor Regions with the Focus on the Invasive American Artemia franciscana

1
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
College of Fisheries and Life Science, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya 572000, China
3
College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya 572000, China
4
College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12040132
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity Conservation)
Due to the rapid developments in the aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been introduced to Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Artemia populations (indigenous and introduced) from 14 different geographical locations in Western Asia. Based on the haplotype spanning network, Artemia urmiana has exhibited higher genetic variation than native parthenogenetic populations. Although A. urmiana represented a completely private haplotype distribution, no apparent genetic structure was recognized among the native parthenogenetic and invasive A. franciscana populations. Our ISSR findings have documented that despite that invasive populations have lower variation than the source population in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), they have significantly revealed higher genetic variability compared to the native populations in Western Asia. According to the ISSR results, the native populations were not fully differentiated by the PCoA analysis, but the exotic A. franciscana populations were geographically divided into four genetic groups. We believe that during the colonization, invasive populations have experienced substantial genetic divergences, under new ecological conditions in the non-indigenous regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic variation; brine shrimp Artemia; invasive species; mt-DNA COI; Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) genomic fingerprinting; Western Asia genetic variation; brine shrimp Artemia; invasive species; mt-DNA COI; Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) genomic fingerprinting; Western Asia
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Eimanifar, A.; Asem, A.; Wang, P.-Z.; Li, W.; Wink, M. Using ISSR Genomic Fingerprinting to Study the Genetic Differentiation of Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Iran and Neighbor Regions with the Focus on the Invasive American Artemia franciscana. Diversity 2020, 12, 132.

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