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Open AccessArticle

Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria from Mycorrhizal Tissues of Terrestrial Orchids from Southern Chile

1
Laboratorio de Biorremediación, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, 4811230 Temuco, Chile
2
Department of Ecosystem Biology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
3
Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12020055
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology and Diversity of Orchids)
Endophytic bacteria are relevant symbionts that contribute to plant growth and development. However, the diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of terrestrial orchids colonizing Andean ecosystems is limited. This study identifies and examines the capabilities of endophytic bacteria associated with peloton-containing roots of six terrestrial orchid species from southern Chile. To achieve our goals, we placed superficially disinfected root fragments harboring pelotons on oatmeal agar (OMA) with no antibiotic addition and cultured them until the bacteria appeared. Subsequently, they were purified and identified using molecular tools and examined for plant growth metabolites production and antifungal activity. In total, 168 bacterial strains were isolated and assigned to 8 OTUs. The orders Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, and Xanthomonadales of phylum Proteobacteria were the most frequent. The orders Bacillales and Flavobacteriales of the phylla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were also obtained. Phosphate solubilization was detected in majority of isolates; however, it was significantly higher in Collimonas pratensis and Chryseobacterium sp. (PSI = 1.505 ± 0.09 and 1.405 ± 0.24, respectively). Siderophore production was recorded only for C. pratensis (0.657 ± 0.14 mm day−1), Dyella marensis (0.131 ± 0.02 mm day−1), and Luteibacter rhizovicinus (0.343 ± 0.12 mm day−1). Indole acetic acid production was highly influenced by the isolate identity; however, the significantly higher activity was recorded for Pseudomonas spp. (ranging from 5.507 ± 1.57 µg mL−1 to 7.437 ± 0.99 µg mL−1). Additionally, six bacterial isolates were able to inhibit the growth of some potential plant pathogenic fungi. Our findings demonstrate the potential for plant growth promoting capabilities and some antifungal activities of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the mycorrhizal tissue of terrestrial orchids, which may contribute especially at early developmental stages of orchid seedlings.
Keywords: bacteria; endophytes; symbiosis; orchids; plant growth-promoting bacteria bacteria; endophytes; symbiosis; orchids; plant growth-promoting bacteria
MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera, H.; Sanhueza, T.; Novotná, A.; Charles, T.C.; Arriagada, C. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria from Mycorrhizal Tissues of Terrestrial Orchids from Southern Chile. Diversity 2020, 12, 55.

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