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Diversity 2018, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020031

Patterns of Long-Term Population Trends of Three Lupine-Feeding Butterflies in Wisconsin

909 Birch Street, Baraboo, WI 53913, USA
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Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
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Abstract

We monitored consecutive generations of three lupine-feeding specialist butterflies in pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin, USA: Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus), Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), and Persius Duskywing (Erynnis persius) during 1991–2014. We also monitored the summer generation of Karner Blues in northwestern Wisconsin. We present results on 24 sites for Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing, and 39 sites for Karner Blue. Land uses in sites occupied by the federally endangered Karner Blue are regulated. Economically utilized lands classified as “Shifting Mosaic” (SM) (forestry land) or “Permanency of Habitat” (PH) (rights-of-way) are afforded a lower standard of conservation results than the more favorable management expected of Reserves (R). For all three species, reserve sites had more favorable trends than permanency of habitat and shifting mosaic sites. Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing had more strongly negative trends in permanency of habitat than shifting mosaic, but vice versa for Karner Blue. Shifting mosaic sites added more recently to the study had negative trends, but not as strongly as longer-monitored shifting mosaic sites. Another large shifting mosaic complex (Hunter Haven), monitored in 17 years during 1995–2014 for Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing, had non-negative trends. Individual reserve sites also had more favorable trends than collectively for all reserve sites, including significant positive trends for Persius Duskywing and Karner Blue, and a stable trend for Frosted Elfin. Thus, land use is implicated not only for declines but also for effective conservation of these species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Frosted Elfin; Karner Blue; Persius Duskywing; conservation evidence; long-term trend; long-term monitoring; pine barren; habitat management; endangered species; recovery Frosted Elfin; Karner Blue; Persius Duskywing; conservation evidence; long-term trend; long-term monitoring; pine barren; habitat management; endangered species; recovery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Swengel, A.B.; Swengel, S.R. Patterns of Long-Term Population Trends of Three Lupine-Feeding Butterflies in Wisconsin. Diversity 2018, 10, 31.

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