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Review

Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review

Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
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Academic Editor: João Pedro Silva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094605
Received: 22 March 2022 / Revised: 11 April 2022 / Accepted: 18 April 2022 / Published: 21 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Glyphosate, a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It can persist in the environment for days or months, and its intensive and large-scale use can constitute a major environmental and health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the current state of our knowledge related to the effects of this pesticide on the nervous system of various animal species and humans. The information provided indicates that exposure to glyphosate or its commercial formulations induces several neurotoxic effects. It has been shown that exposure to this pesticide during the early stages of life can seriously affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission and to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death due to autophagy, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. The doses of glyphosate that produce these neurotoxic effects vary widely but are lower than the limits set by regulatory agencies. Although there are important discrepancies between the analyzed findings, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate produces important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: glyphosate; glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH); neurotoxic effects; human; rodent; fish glyphosate; glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH); neurotoxic effects; human; rodent; fish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costas-Ferreira, C.; Durán, R.; Faro, L.R.F. Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 4605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094605

AMA Style

Costas-Ferreira C, Durán R, Faro LRF. Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(9):4605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094605

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costas-Ferreira, Carmen, Rafael Durán, and Lilian R. F. Faro. 2022. "Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 9: 4605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094605

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