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Article

Biometal Dyshomeostasis in Olfactory Mucosa of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

1
A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
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Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Genetic Toxicology and Epigenetics, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
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Brain Research Unit, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Neurology, NeuroCentre, Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Helsinki University Hospital and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Mental Health Program, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marian Valko
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084123
Received: 28 February 2022 / Revised: 5 April 2022 / Accepted: 7 April 2022 / Published: 8 April 2022
Olfactory function, orchestrated by the cells of the olfactory mucosa at the rooftop of the nasal cavity, is disturbed early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Biometals including zinc and calcium are known to be important for sense of smell and to be altered in the brains of AD patients. Little is known about elemental homeostasis in the AD patient olfactory mucosa. Here we aimed to assess whether the disease-related alterations to biometal homeostasis observed in the brain are also reflected in the olfactory mucosa. We applied RNA sequencing to discover gene expression changes related to metals in olfactory mucosal cells of cognitively healthy controls, individuals with mild cognitive impairment and AD patients, and performed analysis of the elemental content to determine metal levels. Results demonstrate that the levels of zinc, calcium and sodium are increased in the AD olfactory mucosa concomitantly with alterations to 17 genes related to metal-ion binding or metal-related function of the protein product. A significant elevation in alpha-2-macroglobulin, a known metal-binding biomarker correlated with brain disease burden, was observed on the gene and protein levels in the olfactory mucosa cells of AD patients. These data demonstrate that the olfactory mucosa cells derived from AD patients recapitulate certain impairments of biometal homeostasis observed in the brains of patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; olfactory mucosa cells; biometals; zinc; calcium; sodium; alpha-2-macroglobulin; olfactory dysfunction Alzheimer’s disease; olfactory mucosa cells; biometals; zinc; calcium; sodium; alpha-2-macroglobulin; olfactory dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lampinen, R.; Górová, V.; Avesani, S.; Liddell, J.R.; Penttilä, E.; Závodná, T.; Krejčík, Z.; Lehtola, J.-M.; Saari, T.; Kalapudas, J.; Hannonen, S.; Löppönen, H.; Topinka, J.; Koivisto, A.M.; White, A.R.; Giugno, R.; Kanninen, K.M. Biometal Dyshomeostasis in Olfactory Mucosa of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 4123. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084123

AMA Style

Lampinen R, Górová V, Avesani S, Liddell JR, Penttilä E, Závodná T, Krejčík Z, Lehtola J-M, Saari T, Kalapudas J, Hannonen S, Löppönen H, Topinka J, Koivisto AM, White AR, Giugno R, Kanninen KM. Biometal Dyshomeostasis in Olfactory Mucosa of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(8):4123. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084123

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lampinen, Riikka, Veronika Górová, Simone Avesani, Jeffrey R. Liddell, Elina Penttilä, Táňa Závodná, Zdeněk Krejčík, Juha-Matti Lehtola, Toni Saari, Juho Kalapudas, Sanna Hannonen, Heikki Löppönen, Jan Topinka, Anne M. Koivisto, Anthony R. White, Rosalba Giugno, and Katja M. Kanninen. 2022. "Biometal Dyshomeostasis in Olfactory Mucosa of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 8: 4123. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084123

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