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3D Printed Poly(𝜀-caprolactone)/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Comparative Study on a Composite Preparation by Melt Blending or Solvent Casting Techniques and the Influence of Bioceramic Content on Scaffold Properties

1
Centre for Rapid and Sustainable Product Development (CDRSP), Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal
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Veterinary Clinics Department, Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), University of Porto (UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Animal Science Studies Centre (CECA), Agroenvironment, Technologies and Sciences Institute (ICETA), University of Porto (UP), Rua D. Manuel II, Apartado 55142, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal
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CBQF—Centre of Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry—Associated Laboratory, Faculty of Biotechnology, Catholic University of Portugal, Rua de Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
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Vasco da Gama Research Center (CIVG)/Vasco da Gama University School (EUVG), Av. José R. Sousa Fernandes 197, Lordemão, 3020-210 Coimbra, Portugal
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Veterinary Clinics Department, Vasco da Gama University School (EUVG), Av. José R. Sousa Fernandes 197, Lordemão, 3020-210 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Agata Przekora
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042318
Received: 14 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 16 February 2022 / Published: 19 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine 2.0)
Bone tissue engineering has been developed in the past decades, with the engineering of bone substitutes on the vanguard of this regenerative approach. Polycaprolactone-based scaffolds are fairly applied for bone regeneration, and several composites have been incorporated so as to improve the scaffolds’ mechanical properties and tissue in-growth. In this study, hydroxyapatite is incorporated on polycaprolactone-based scaffolds at two different proportions, 80:20 and 60:40. Scaffolds are produced with two different blending methods, solvent casting and melt blending. The prepared composites are 3D printed through an extrusion-based technique and further investigated with regard to their chemical, thermal, morphological, and mechanical characteristics. In vitro cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation was also assessed with human dental pulp stem/stromal cells. The results show the melt-blending-derived scaffolds to present more promising mechanical properties, along with the incorporation of hydroxyapatite. The latter is also related to an increase in osteogenic activity and promotion. Overall, this study suggests polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds to be promising candidates for bone tissue engineering, particularly when produced by the MB method. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycaprolactone; hydroxyapatite; composites; solvent casting; melt blending; 3D printing; cytocompatibility; bone tissue engineering polycaprolactone; hydroxyapatite; composites; solvent casting; melt blending; 3D printing; cytocompatibility; bone tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biscaia, S.; Branquinho, M.V.; Alvites, R.D.; Fonseca, R.; Sousa, A.C.; Pedrosa, S.S.; Caseiro, A.R.; Guedes, F.; Patrício, T.; Viana, T.; Mateus, A.; Maurício, A.C.; Alves, N. 3D Printed Poly(𝜀-caprolactone)/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Comparative Study on a Composite Preparation by Melt Blending or Solvent Casting Techniques and the Influence of Bioceramic Content on Scaffold Properties. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042318

AMA Style

Biscaia S, Branquinho MV, Alvites RD, Fonseca R, Sousa AC, Pedrosa SS, Caseiro AR, Guedes F, Patrício T, Viana T, Mateus A, Maurício AC, Alves N. 3D Printed Poly(𝜀-caprolactone)/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Comparative Study on a Composite Preparation by Melt Blending or Solvent Casting Techniques and the Influence of Bioceramic Content on Scaffold Properties. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(4):2318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042318

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biscaia, Sara, Mariana V. Branquinho, Rui D. Alvites, Rita Fonseca, Ana Catarina Sousa, Sílvia Santos Pedrosa, Ana R. Caseiro, Fernando Guedes, Tatiana Patrício, Tânia Viana, Artur Mateus, Ana C. Maurício, and Nuno Alves. 2022. "3D Printed Poly(𝜀-caprolactone)/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Comparative Study on a Composite Preparation by Melt Blending or Solvent Casting Techniques and the Influence of Bioceramic Content on Scaffold Properties" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 4: 2318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042318

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