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Review

The Role of the Lymphatic System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam Institute for Gastroenterology Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Amsterdam Rheumatology & Immunology Center (ARC), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam Institute for Infection & Immunity, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Onassis Foundation, 4 Aeschinou Street, 10558 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Viscido
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031854
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 26 January 2022 / Accepted: 1 February 2022 / Published: 6 February 2022
Although the number of therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased in recent years, patients suffer from decreased quality of life due to non-response or loss of response to the currently available treatments. An increased understanding of the disease’s etiology could provide novel insights for treatment strategies in IBD. Lymphatic system components are generally linked to immune responses and presumably related to inflammatory diseases pathophysiology. This review aims to summarize findings on immune-mediated mechanisms in lymphoid tissues linked with IBD pathogenesis and (potential) novel treatments. Enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses were observed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and other lymphoid structures, such as Peyer’s patches, in patients with IBD and in animal models. Furthermore, the phenomenon of lymphatic obstruction in the form of granulomas in MLNs and lymphatic vessels correlates with disease activity. There is also evidence that abnormalities in the lymphatic stromal components and lymph node microbiome are common in IBD and could be exploited therapeutically. Finally, novel agents targeting lymphocyte trafficking have been added to the treatment armamentarium in the field of IBD. Overall, gut-associated lymphoid tissue plays a key role in IBD immunopathogenesis, which could offer novel therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: IBD; lymph nodes; Peyer’s patches; stroma; lymphatic obstruction; microbiome; lymphocyte trafficking IBD; lymph nodes; Peyer’s patches; stroma; lymphatic obstruction; microbiome; lymphocyte trafficking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolakis, D.; de Voogd, F.A.E.; Pruijt, M.J.; Grootjans, J.; van de Sande, M.G.; D’Haens, G.R. The Role of the Lymphatic System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031854

AMA Style

Nikolakis D, de Voogd FAE, Pruijt MJ, Grootjans J, van de Sande MG, D’Haens GR. The Role of the Lymphatic System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031854

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikolakis, Dimitrios, Floris A.E. de Voogd, Maarten J. Pruijt, Joep Grootjans, Marleen G. van de Sande, and Geert R. D’Haens. 2022. "The Role of the Lymphatic System in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031854

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