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Article

Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Activities of Fluorescein—A Diagnostic Angiography Dye

1
Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, General University Hospital in Prague and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Na Bojišti 3, 121 08 Praha, Czech Republic
2
RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
4th Department of Internal Medicine, General University Hospital in Prague and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, U Nemocnice 2, 128 08 Praha, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabio Altieri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031504
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2022 / Accepted: 26 January 2022 / Published: 28 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 21st Anniversary of IJMS: Advances in Biochemistry)
Fluorescein is a fluorescent dye used as a diagnostic tool in various fields of medicine. Although fluorescein itself possesses low toxicity, after photoactivation, it releases potentially toxic molecules, such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and, as we demonstrate in this work, also carbon monoxide (CO). As both of these molecules can affect physiological processes, the main aim of this study was to explore the potential biological impacts of fluorescein photochemistry. In our in vitro study in a human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line, we explored the possible effects on cell viability, cellular energy metabolism, and the cell cycle. We observed markedly lowered cell viability (≈30%, 75–2400 μM) upon irradiation of intracellular fluorescein and proved that this decrease in viability was dependent on the cellular oxygen concentration. We also detected a significantly decreased concentration of Krebs cycle metabolites (lactate and citrate < 30%; 2-hydroxyglutarate and 2-oxoglutarate < 10%) as well as cell cycle arrest (decrease in the G2 phase of 18%). These observations suggest that this photochemical reaction could have important biological consequences and may account for some adverse reactions observed in fluorescein-treated patients. Additionally, the biological activities of both 1O2 and CO might have considerable therapeutic potential, particularly in the treatment of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorescein; irradiation; singlet oxygen; carbon monoxide; viability; metabolism; proliferation fluorescein; irradiation; singlet oxygen; carbon monoxide; viability; metabolism; proliferation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šranková, M.; Dvořák, A.; Martínek, M.; Šebej, P.; Klán, P.; Vítek, L.; Muchová, L. Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Activities of Fluorescein—A Diagnostic Angiography Dye. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1504. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031504

AMA Style

Šranková M, Dvořák A, Martínek M, Šebej P, Klán P, Vítek L, Muchová L. Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Activities of Fluorescein—A Diagnostic Angiography Dye. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1504. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031504

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šranková, Mária, Aleš Dvořák, Marek Martínek, Peter Šebej, Petr Klán, Libor Vítek, and Lucie Muchová. 2022. "Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Activities of Fluorescein—A Diagnostic Angiography Dye" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1504. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031504

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