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Chronoradiobiology of Breast Cancer: The Time Is Now to Link Circadian Rhythm and Radiation Biology

Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: James A. Bonner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031331
Received: 31 December 2021 / Revised: 20 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Biology and Molecular Radiation Oncology)
Circadian disruption has been linked to cancer development, progression, and radiation response. Clinical evidence to date shows that circadian genetic variation and time of treatment affect radiation response and toxicity for women with breast cancer. At the molecular level, there is interplay between circadian clock regulators such as PER1, which mediates ATM and p53-mediated cell cycle gating and apoptosis. These molecular alterations may govern aggressive cancer phenotypes, outcomes, and radiation response. Exploiting the various circadian clock mechanisms may enhance the therapeutic index of radiation by decreasing toxicity, increasing disease control, and improving outcomes. We will review the body’s natural circadian rhythms and clock gene-regulation while exploring preclinical and clinical evidence that implicates chronobiological disruptions in the etiology of breast cancer. We will discuss radiobiological principles and the circadian regulation of DNA damage responses. Lastly, we will present potential rational therapeutic approaches that target circadian pathways to improve outcomes in breast cancer. Understanding the implications of optimal timing in cancer treatment and exploring ways to entrain circadian biology with light, diet, and chronobiological agents like melatonin may provide an avenue for enhancing the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; chronobiology; circadian rhythms; radiation; chronoradiotherapy breast cancer; chronobiology; circadian rhythms; radiation; chronoradiotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, N.; Lombardo, J.; Matlack, L.; Smith, A.; Hines, K.; Shi, W.; Simone, N.L. Chronoradiobiology of Breast Cancer: The Time Is Now to Link Circadian Rhythm and Radiation Biology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031331

AMA Style

Nelson N, Lombardo J, Matlack L, Smith A, Hines K, Shi W, Simone NL. Chronoradiobiology of Breast Cancer: The Time Is Now to Link Circadian Rhythm and Radiation Biology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nelson, Nicolas, Joseph Lombardo, Lauren Matlack, Alexandria Smith, Kamryn Hines, Wenyin Shi, and Nicole L. Simone. 2022. "Chronoradiobiology of Breast Cancer: The Time Is Now to Link Circadian Rhythm and Radiation Biology" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031331

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