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Article

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Arabinogalactan Proteins during Larix decidua Mill. Male Gametophyte and Ovule Interaction

1
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Silvia Coimbra and Ana Marta Pereira
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094298
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling in Plant Reproduction)
The role of ArabinoGalactan Proteins (AGPs) in the sexual reproduction of gymnosperms is not as well documented as that of angiosperms. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that AGPs play important roles during ovule differentiation in Larix decidua Mill. The presented results encouraged us to carry out further studies focused on the functions of these unique glycoproteins during pollen/pollen tube and ovule interactions in Larix. We identified and analyzed the localization of AGPs epitopes by JIM4, JIM8, JIM13 and LM2 antibodies (Abs) in male gametophytes and ovule tissue during pollination, the progamic phase, and after fertilization and in vitro growing pollen tubes. Our results indicated that (1) AGPs recognized by JIM4 Abs play an essential role in the interaction of male gametophytes and ovules because their appearance in ovule cells is induced by physical contact between reproductive partners; (2) after pollination, AGPs are secreted from the pollen cytoplasm into the pollen wall and contact the extracellular matrix of stigmatic tip cells followed by micropylar canal cells; (3) AGPs synthesized in nucellus cells before pollen grain germination are secreted during pollen tube growth into the extracellular matrix, where they can directly interact with male gametophytes; (4) in vitro cultured pollen tube AGPs labeled with LM2 Abs participate in the germination of pollen grain, while AGPs recognized by JIM8 Abs are essential for pollen tube tip growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: gymnosperms; ArabinoGalactan Proteins (AGPs); pollen grain; pollen tube; ovule; extracellular matrix (ecm); progamic phase; fertilization gymnosperms; ArabinoGalactan Proteins (AGPs); pollen grain; pollen tube; ovule; extracellular matrix (ecm); progamic phase; fertilization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rafińska, K.; Niedojadło, K.; Świdziński, M.; Niedojadło, J.; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, E. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Arabinogalactan Proteins during Larix decidua Mill. Male Gametophyte and Ovule Interaction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094298

AMA Style

Rafińska K, Niedojadło K, Świdziński M, Niedojadło J, Bednarska-Kozakiewicz E. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Arabinogalactan Proteins during Larix decidua Mill. Male Gametophyte and Ovule Interaction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094298

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rafińska, Katarzyna, Katarzyna Niedojadło, Michał Świdziński, Janusz Niedojadło, and Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz. 2021. "Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Arabinogalactan Proteins during Larix decidua Mill. Male Gametophyte and Ovule Interaction" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094298

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