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Review

Flame Retardants-Mediated Interferon Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1
Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ62500 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health, Section for Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Mantovani
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084282
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing concern worldwide, affecting 25% of the global population. NAFLD is a multifactorial disease with a broad spectrum of pathology includes steatosis, which gradually progresses to a more severe condition such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually leads to hepatic cancer. Several risk factors, including exposure to environmental toxicants, are involved in the development and progression of NAFLD. Environmental factors may promote the development and progression of NAFLD by various biological alterations, including mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species production, nuclear receptors dysregulation, and interference in inflammatory and immune-mediated signaling. Moreover, environmental contaminants can influence immune responses by impairing the immune system’s components and, ultimately, disease susceptibility. Flame retardants (FRs) are anthropogenic chemicals or mixtures that are being used to inhibit or delay the spread of fire. FRs have been employed in several household and outdoor products; therefore, human exposure is unavoidable. In this review, we summarized the potential mechanisms of FRs-associated immune and inflammatory signaling and their possible contribution to the development and progression of NAFLD, with an emphasis on FRs-mediated interferon signaling. Knowledge gaps are identified, and emerging pharmacotherapeutic molecules targeting the immune and inflammatory signaling for NAFLD are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame retardants; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolism-disrupting chemicals; cytokines; interferon; metabolic disruption flame retardants; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolism-disrupting chemicals; cytokines; interferon; metabolic disruption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Negi, C.K.; Khan, S.; Dirven, H.; Bajard, L.; Bláha, L. Flame Retardants-Mediated Interferon Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4282. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084282

AMA Style

Negi CK, Khan S, Dirven H, Bajard L, Bláha L. Flame Retardants-Mediated Interferon Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):4282. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084282

Chicago/Turabian Style

Negi, Chander K., Sabbir Khan, Hubert Dirven, Lola Bajard, and Luděk Bláha. 2021. "Flame Retardants-Mediated Interferon Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 4282. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084282

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