Osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, play pivotal roles in bone modeling and remodeling. Osteoblast differentiation, also known as osteoblastogenesis, is orchestrated by transcription factors, such as runt-related transcription factor 1/2, osterix, activating transcription factor 4, special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 and activator protein-1. Osteoblastogenesis is regulated by a network of cytokines under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoblastogenic cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-11, IL-18, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), cardiotrophin-1 and oncostatin M, promote osteoblastogenesis, whereas anti-osteoblastogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-β, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-23, IFN-α, IFN-β, leukemia inhibitory factor, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, downregulate osteoblastogenesis. Although there are gaps in the body of knowledge regarding the interplay of cytokine networks in osteoblastogenesis, cytokines appear to be potential therapeutic targets in bone-related diseases. Thus, in this study, we review and discuss our osteoblast, osteoblast differentiation, osteoblastogenesis, cytokines, signaling pathway of cytokine networks in osteoblastogenesis.
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