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Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation by Cytokine Networks

Department of Zoology and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Colombo, Colombo 00300, Sri Lanka
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonella Forlino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2851;
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoblast Differentiation and Activity in Skeletal Diseases)
Osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, play pivotal roles in bone modeling and remodeling. Osteoblast differentiation, also known as osteoblastogenesis, is orchestrated by transcription factors, such as runt-related transcription factor 1/2, osterix, activating transcription factor 4, special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 and activator protein-1. Osteoblastogenesis is regulated by a network of cytokines under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoblastogenic cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-11, IL-18, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), cardiotrophin-1 and oncostatin M, promote osteoblastogenesis, whereas anti-osteoblastogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-β, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-23, IFN-α, IFN-β, leukemia inhibitory factor, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, downregulate osteoblastogenesis. Although there are gaps in the body of knowledge regarding the interplay of cytokine networks in osteoblastogenesis, cytokines appear to be potential therapeutic targets in bone-related diseases. Thus, in this study, we review and discuss our osteoblast, osteoblast differentiation, osteoblastogenesis, cytokines, signaling pathway of cytokine networks in osteoblastogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoblast; osteoblast differentiation; osteoblastogenesis; cytokine; signaling pathway osteoblast; osteoblast differentiation; osteoblastogenesis; cytokine; signaling pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amarasekara, D.S.; Kim, S.; Rho, J. Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation by Cytokine Networks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2851.

AMA Style

Amarasekara DS, Kim S, Rho J. Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation by Cytokine Networks. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2851.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amarasekara, Dulshara S., Sumi Kim, and Jaerang Rho. 2021. "Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation by Cytokine Networks" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 2851.

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