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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Genomics: Insights on the Pathogenicity and Lifestyle of Rhizoctonia solani

1
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Bionivid Technology Pte Ltd., 209, 4th Cross Rd, B Channasandra, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturi Nagar, Bengaluru 560043, Karnataka, India
3
Codon Genomics Sdn. Bhd., No 26, Jalan Dutamas 7 Taman Dutamas Balakong, Seri Kembangan 43200, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Malaysia Genome Institute, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Burkovski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042183
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Pathogen Interaction 2.0)
Proper management of agricultural disease is important to ensure sustainable food security. Staple food crops like rice, wheat, cereals, and other cash crops hold great export value for countries. Ensuring proper supply is critical; hence any biotic or abiotic factors contributing to the shortfall in yield of these crops should be alleviated. Rhizoctonia solani is a major biotic factor that results in yield losses in many agriculturally important crops. This paper focuses on genome informatics of our Malaysian Draft R. solani AG1-IA, and the comparative genomics (inter- and intra- AG) with four AGs including China AG1-IA (AG1-IA_KB317705.1), AG1-IB, AG3, and AG8. The genomic content of repeat elements, transposable elements (TEs), syntenic genomic blocks, functions of protein-coding genes as well as core orthologous genic information that underlies R. solani’s pathogenicity strategy were investigated. Our analyses show that all studied AGs have low content and varying profiles of TEs. All AGs were dominant for Class I TE, much like other basidiomycete pathogens. All AGs demonstrate dominance in Glycoside Hydrolase protein-coding gene assignments suggesting its importance in infiltration and infection of host. Our profiling also provides a basis for further investigation on lack of correlation observed between number of pathogenicity and enzyme-related genes with host range. Despite being grouped within the same AG with China AG1-IA, our Draft AG1-IA exhibits differences in terms of protein-coding gene proportions and classifications. This implies that strains from similar AG do not necessarily have to retain similar proportions and classification of TE but must have the necessary arsenal to enable successful infiltration and colonization of host. In a larger perspective, all the studied AGs essentially share core genes that are generally involved in adhesion, penetration, and host colonization. However, the different infiltration strategies will depend on the level of host resilience where this is clearly exhibited by the gene sets encoded for the process of infiltration, infection, and protection from host. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhizoctonia solani; anastomosis group (AG); comparative genomics; Genome Annotation; repeat element; CAZy; pathogenicity genes; transposable element; single copy orthologs; synteny Rhizoctonia solani; anastomosis group (AG); comparative genomics; Genome Annotation; repeat element; CAZy; pathogenicity genes; transposable element; single copy orthologs; synteny
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mat Razali, N.; Hisham, S.N.; Kumar, I.S.; Shukla, R.N.; Lee, M.; Abu Bakar, M.F.; Nadarajah, K. Comparative Genomics: Insights on the Pathogenicity and Lifestyle of Rhizoctonia solani. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042183

AMA Style

Mat Razali N, Hisham SN, Kumar IS, Shukla RN, Lee M, Abu Bakar MF, Nadarajah K. Comparative Genomics: Insights on the Pathogenicity and Lifestyle of Rhizoctonia solani. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mat Razali, Nurhani; Hisham, Siti N.; Kumar, Ilakiya S.; Shukla, Rohit N.; Lee, Melvin; Abu Bakar, Mohd F.; Nadarajah, Kalaivani. 2021. "Comparative Genomics: Insights on the Pathogenicity and Lifestyle of Rhizoctonia solani" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 2183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042183

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