Next Article in Journal
Gastric Carcinomas with Stromal B7-H3 Expression Have Lower Intratumoural CD8+ T Cell Density
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Vitamin D on Skin Aging
Previous Article in Journal
Fructose Induces Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans through Activation of Mdr1 and Cdr1 Transporters
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sex Differences in Photoprotective Responses to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Mice Are Modulated by the Estrogen Receptor-β
Review

Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D beyond the Musculoskeletal System

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrzej Slominski and Magali Cucchiarini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042128
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 21 February 2021
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is endogenously synthesized in response to sunlight or taken from dietary supplements. Since vitamin D receptors are present in most tissues and cells in the body, the mounting understanding of the role of vitamin D in humans indicates that it does not only play an important role in the musculoskeletal system, but has beneficial effects elsewhere as well. This review summarizes the metabolism of vitamin D, the research regarding the possible risk factors leading to vitamin D deficiency, and the relationships between vitamin D deficiency and numerous illnesses, including rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, muscle weakness and falls, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, and neurological disorders. The system-wide effects of vitamin D and the mechanisms of the diseases are also discussed. Although accumulating evidence supports associations of vitamin D deficiency with physical and mental disorders and beneficial effects of vitamin D with health maintenance and disease prevention, there continue to be controversies over the beneficial effects of vitamin D. Thus, more well-designed and statistically powered trials are required to enable the assessment of vitamin D’s role in optimizing health and preventing disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; musculoskeletal; nonmusculoskeletal; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2D); sunlight vitamin D; musculoskeletal; nonmusculoskeletal; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2D); sunlight
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Miller, D.D.; Li, W. Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D beyond the Musculoskeletal System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042128

AMA Style

Zhang S, Miller DD, Li W. Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D beyond the Musculoskeletal System. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Sicheng, Duane D. Miller, and Wei Li. 2021. "Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D beyond the Musculoskeletal System" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 2128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042128

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop