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Advances in Understanding of the Copper Homeostasis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials & Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
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Academic Editor: Francesca Cantini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042050
Received: 24 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
Thirty-five thousand people die as a result of more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States of America per year. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is classified a serious threat, the second-highest threat category of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Among others, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the discovery and development of novel antibiotic classes with new targets and mechanisms of action without cross-resistance to existing classes. To find potential new target sites in pathogenic bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa, it is inevitable to fully understand the molecular mechanism of homeostasis, metabolism, regulation, growth, and resistances thereof. P. aeruginosa maintains a sophisticated copper defense cascade comprising three stages, resembling those of public safety organizations. These stages include copper scavenging, first responder, and second responder. Similar mechanisms are found in numerous pathogens. Here we compare the copper-dependent transcription regulators cueR and copRS of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and P. aeruginosa. Further, phylogenetic analysis and structural modelling of mexPQ-opmE reveal that this efflux pump is unlikely to be involved in the copper export of P. aeruginosa. Altogether, we present current understandings of the copper homeostasis in P. aeruginosa and potential new target sites for antimicrobial agents or a combinatorial drug regimen in the fight against multidrug resistant pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; copper homeostasis; multidrug resistance; pathogen; antibiotic resistance; transcription regulation; transcription factors; cueR; copRS; cusCBA Pseudomonas aeruginosa; copper homeostasis; multidrug resistance; pathogen; antibiotic resistance; transcription regulation; transcription factors; cueR; copRS; cusCBA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hofmann, L.; Hirsch, M.; Ruthstein, S. Advances in Understanding of the Copper Homeostasis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042050

AMA Style

Hofmann L, Hirsch M, Ruthstein S. Advances in Understanding of the Copper Homeostasis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hofmann, Lukas, Melanie Hirsch, and Sharon Ruthstein. 2021. "Advances in Understanding of the Copper Homeostasis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 2050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042050

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