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Open AccessArticle

Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Entire Male, Immunocastrated and Surgically Castrated Pigs

1
Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova ulica 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Maribor, Pivola 10, 2311 Hoče, Slovenia
3
Institute of Preclinical Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva ulica 60, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Behavioural Physiology of Livestock, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 17, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristoforo Comi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041768
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
Differences in adipose tissue deposition and properties between pig male sex categories, i.e., entire males (EM), immunocastrates (IC) and surgical castrates (SC) are relatively well-characterized, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To gain knowledge about the genetic regulation of the differences in adipose tissue deposition, two different approaches were used: RNA-sequencing and candidate gene expression by quantitative PCR. A total of 83 differentially expressed genes were identified between EM and IC, 15 between IC and SC and 48 between EM and SC by RNA-sequencing of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Comparing EM with IC or SC, upregulated genes related to extracellular matrix dynamics and adipogenesis, and downregulated genes involved in the control of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were detected. Differential gene expression generally indicated high similarity between IC and SC as opposed to EM, except for several heat shock protein genes that were upregulated in EM and IC compared with SC. The candidate gene expression approach showed that genes involved in lipogenesis were downregulated in EM compared with IC pigs, further confirming RNA-sequencing results. View Full-Text
Keywords: pigs; adipose tissue; entire males; immunocastration; surgical castration; RNA-sequencing; expression pigs; adipose tissue; entire males; immunocastration; surgical castration; RNA-sequencing; expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poklukar, K.; Čandek-Potokar, M.; Vrecl, M.; Batorek-Lukač, N.; Fazarinc, G.; Kress, K.; Stefanski, V.; Škrlep, M. Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Entire Male, Immunocastrated and Surgically Castrated Pigs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041768

AMA Style

Poklukar K, Čandek-Potokar M, Vrecl M, Batorek-Lukač N, Fazarinc G, Kress K, Stefanski V, Škrlep M. Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Entire Male, Immunocastrated and Surgically Castrated Pigs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041768

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poklukar, Klavdija; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Vrecl, Milka; Batorek-Lukač, Nina; Fazarinc, Gregor; Kress, Kevin; Stefanski, Volker; Škrlep, Martin. 2021. "Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Entire Male, Immunocastrated and Surgically Castrated Pigs" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041768

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