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Article

Homogentisic Acid and Gentisic Acid Biosynthesized Pyomelanin Mimics: Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity

1
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Next Technology Tecnotessile, Via del Gelso 13, 59100 Prato, Italy
3
Department of Ecology and Biology, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Linert
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041739
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue OxiZymes)
Pyomelanin mimics from homogentisic acid (HGA) and gentisic acid (GA) were biosynthesized by the oxidative enzyme T. versicolor laccase at physiological pH to obtain water soluble melanins. The pigments show brown-black color, broad band visible light absorption, a persistent paramagnetism and high antioxidant activity. The EPR approach shows that at least two different radical species are present in both cases, contributing to the paramagnetism of the samples. This achievement can also shed light on the composition of the ochronotic pigment in the Alkaptonuria disease. On the other hand, these soluble pyomelanin mimics, sharing physico-chemical properties with eumelanin, can represent a suitable alternative to replace the insoluble melanin pigment in biotechnological applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: homogentisic acid; gentisic acid; laccase; pyomelanin mimics; radical species; EPR; antioxidant activity homogentisic acid; gentisic acid; laccase; pyomelanin mimics; radical species; EPR; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Khatib, M.; Costa, J.; Spinelli, D.; Capecchi, E.; Saladino, R.; Baratto, M.C.; Pogni, R. Homogentisic Acid and Gentisic Acid Biosynthesized Pyomelanin Mimics: Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041739

AMA Style

Al Khatib M, Costa J, Spinelli D, Capecchi E, Saladino R, Baratto MC, Pogni R. Homogentisic Acid and Gentisic Acid Biosynthesized Pyomelanin Mimics: Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al Khatib, Maher, Jessica Costa, Daniele Spinelli, Eliana Capecchi, Raffaele Saladino, Maria Camilla Baratto, and Rebecca Pogni. 2021. "Homogentisic Acid and Gentisic Acid Biosynthesized Pyomelanin Mimics: Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041739

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