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Review

Understanding Viral Infection Mechanisms and Patient Symptoms for the Development of COVID-19 Therapeutics

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gandong-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
3
East-West Bone & Joint Disease Research Institute, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gandong-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gianni Marone and Cristina Belizna
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041737
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Molecular Studies in Biology and Chemistry)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has become a worldwide pandemic. Symptoms range from mild fever to cough, fatigue, severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and organ failure, with a mortality rate of 2.2%. However, there are no licensed drugs or definitive treatment strategies for patients with severe COVID-19. Only antiviral or anti-inflammatory drugs are used as symptomatic treatments based on clinician experience. Basic medical researchers are also trying to develop COVID-19 therapeutics. However, there is limited systematic information about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 symptoms that cause tissue damage or death and the mechanisms by which the virus infects and replicates in cells. Here, we introduce recent knowledge of time course changes in viral titers, delayed virus clearance, and persistent systemic inflammation in patients with severe COVID-19. Based on the concept of drug reposition, we review which antiviral or anti-inflammatory drugs can effectively treat COVID-19 patients based on progressive symptoms and the mechanisms inhibiting virus infection and replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE2; TMPRSS2; camostat mesilate; immunomodulation SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE2; TMPRSS2; camostat mesilate; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, H.M.; Moon, S.Y.; Yang, H.I.; Kim, K.S. Understanding Viral Infection Mechanisms and Patient Symptoms for the Development of COVID-19 Therapeutics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041737

AMA Style

Choi HM, Moon SY, Yang HI, Kim KS. Understanding Viral Infection Mechanisms and Patient Symptoms for the Development of COVID-19 Therapeutics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041737

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Hyung M., Soo Y. Moon, Hyung I. Yang, and Kyoung S. Kim 2021. "Understanding Viral Infection Mechanisms and Patient Symptoms for the Development of COVID-19 Therapeutics" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041737

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