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Article

Urinary Levels of the Acrolein Conjugates of Carnosine Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk

1
Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
2
Christina Lee Brown Envirome Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40208, USA
3
Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
4
KBRIN Bioinformatics Core, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Luc Rochette
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031383
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide (β-alanine-L-histidine) which supports physiological homeostasis by buffering intracellular pH, chelating metals, and conjugating with and neutralizing toxic aldehydes such as acrolein. However, it is not clear if carnosine can support cardiovascular function or modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To examine this, we measured urinary levels of nonconjugated carnosine and its acrolein conjugates (carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol) in participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study and examined associations with indices of CVD risk. We found that nonconjugated carnosine was significantly associated with hypertension (p = 0.011), heart failure (p = 0.015), those categorized with high CVD risk (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI; p = 0.007), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; p = 0.026), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; p = 0.007) and certain medication uses. Levels of carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol demonstrated significant associations with BMI, blood glucose, HDL and diagnosis of diabetes. Carnosine-propanal was also associated with heart failure (p = 0.045) and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.002), but no associations with myocardial infarction or stroke were identified. We found that the positive associations of carnosine conjugates with diabetes and HDL remain statistically significant (p < 0.05) in an adjusted, linear regression model. These findings suggest that urinary levels of nonconjugated carnosine, carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol may be informative biomarkers for the assessment of CVD risk—and particularly reflective of skeletal muscle injury and carnosine depletion in diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnosine; acrolein; cardiovascular disease; biomarker carnosine; acrolein; cardiovascular disease; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Toole, T.E.; Li, X.; Riggs, D.W.; Hoetker, D.J.; Baba, S.P.; Bhatnagar, A. Urinary Levels of the Acrolein Conjugates of Carnosine Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031383

AMA Style

O’Toole TE, Li X, Riggs DW, Hoetker DJ, Baba SP, Bhatnagar A. Urinary Levels of the Acrolein Conjugates of Carnosine Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031383

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Toole, Timothy E., Xiaohong Li, Daniel W. Riggs, David J. Hoetker, Shahid P. Baba, and Aruni Bhatnagar. 2021. "Urinary Levels of the Acrolein Conjugates of Carnosine Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031383

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