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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Digestive Inflammatory Environment and Genipin Crosslinking on Immunomodulatory Capacity of Injectable Musculoskeletal Tissue Scaffold

1
Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
4
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031134
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Cell Mediated Tissue Regeneration)
The paracrine and autocrine processes of the host response play an integral role in the success of scaffold-based tissue regeneration. Recently, the immunomodulatory scaffolds have received huge attention for modulating inflammation around the host tissue through releasing anti-inflammatory cytokine. However, controlling the inflammation and providing a sustained release of anti-inflammatory cytokine from the scaffold in the digestive inflammatory environment are predicated upon a comprehensive understanding of three fundamental questions. (1) How does the release rate of cytokine from the scaffold change in the digestive inflammatory environment? (2) Can we prevent the premature scaffold degradation and burst release of the loaded cytokine in the digestive inflammatory environment? (3) How does the scaffold degradation prevention technique affect the immunomodulatory capacity of the scaffold? This study investigated the impacts of the digestive inflammatory environment on scaffold degradation and how pre-mature degradation can be prevented using genipin crosslinking and how genipin crosslinking affects the interleukin-4 (IL-4) release from the scaffold and differentiation of naïve macrophages (M0). Our results demonstrated that the digestive inflammatory environment (DIE) attenuates protein retention within the scaffold. Over 14 days, the encapsulated protein released 46% more in DIE than in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), which was improved through genipin crosslinking. We have identified the 0.5 (w/v) genipin concentration as an optimal concentration for improved IL-4 released from the scaffold, cell viability, mechanical strength, and scaffold porosity, and immunomodulation studies. The IL-4 released from the injectable scaffold could differentiate naïve macrophages to an anti-inflammatory (M2) lineage; however, upon genipin crosslinking, the immunomodulatory capacity of the scaffold diminished significantly, and pro-inflammatory markers were expressed dominantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunomodulation; cytokine; IL-4; macrophage; differentiation; inflammation; musculoskeletal; genipin; collagen; polycaprolactone; scaffold; injectable immunomodulation; cytokine; IL-4; macrophage; differentiation; inflammation; musculoskeletal; genipin; collagen; polycaprolactone; scaffold; injectable
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shortridge, C.; Akbari Fakhrabadi, E.; Wuescher, L.M.; Worth, R.G.; Liberatore, M.W.; Yildirim-Ayan, E. Impact of Digestive Inflammatory Environment and Genipin Crosslinking on Immunomodulatory Capacity of Injectable Musculoskeletal Tissue Scaffold. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031134

AMA Style

Shortridge C, Akbari Fakhrabadi E, Wuescher LM, Worth RG, Liberatore MW, Yildirim-Ayan E. Impact of Digestive Inflammatory Environment and Genipin Crosslinking on Immunomodulatory Capacity of Injectable Musculoskeletal Tissue Scaffold. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shortridge, Colin; Akbari Fakhrabadi, Ehsan; Wuescher, Leah M.; Worth, Randall G.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda. 2021. "Impact of Digestive Inflammatory Environment and Genipin Crosslinking on Immunomodulatory Capacity of Injectable Musculoskeletal Tissue Scaffold" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 3: 1134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031134

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