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Article

Multimodal Spectroscopic Imaging of Pea Root Nodules to Assess the Nitrogen Fixation in the Presence of Biofertilizer Based on Nod-Factors

1
Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
2
Independent Unit of Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doswiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univeristy, Svante Arrhenius Väg 16 C, 106-91 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Kenji Miura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312991
Received: 10 November 2021 / Revised: 28 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 30 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Multimodal spectroscopic imaging methods such as Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor the changes in distribution and to determine semi quantitatively selected metabolites involved in nitrogen fixation in pea root nodules. These approaches were used to evaluate the effectiveness of nitrogen fixation by pea plants treated with biofertilizer preparations containing Nod factors. To assess the effectiveness of biofertilizer, the fresh and dry masses of plants were determined. The biofertilizer was shown to be effective in enhancing the growth of the pea plants. In case of metabolic changes, the biofertilizer caused a change in the apparent distribution of the leghaemoglobin from the edges of the nodule to its centre (the active zone of nodule). Moreover, the enhanced nitrogen fixation and presumably the accelerated maturation form of the nodules were observed with the use of a biofertilizer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhizobium; Nod factor; pea; symbiosis; MALDI MSI; Raman spectroscopy; FT-IR spectroscopy Rhizobium; Nod factor; pea; symbiosis; MALDI MSI; Raman spectroscopy; FT-IR spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Susniak, K.; Krysa, M.; Kidaj, D.; Szymanska-Chargot, M.; Komaniecka, I.; Zamlynska, K.; Choma, A.; Wielbo, J.; Ilag, L.L.; Sroka-Bartnicka, A. Multimodal Spectroscopic Imaging of Pea Root Nodules to Assess the Nitrogen Fixation in the Presence of Biofertilizer Based on Nod-Factors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312991

AMA Style

Susniak K, Krysa M, Kidaj D, Szymanska-Chargot M, Komaniecka I, Zamlynska K, Choma A, Wielbo J, Ilag LL, Sroka-Bartnicka A. Multimodal Spectroscopic Imaging of Pea Root Nodules to Assess the Nitrogen Fixation in the Presence of Biofertilizer Based on Nod-Factors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):12991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312991

Chicago/Turabian Style

Susniak, Katarzyna, Mikolaj Krysa, Dominika Kidaj, Monika Szymanska-Chargot, Iwona Komaniecka, Katarzyna Zamlynska, Adam Choma, Jerzy Wielbo, Leopold L. Ilag, and Anna Sroka-Bartnicka. 2021. "Multimodal Spectroscopic Imaging of Pea Root Nodules to Assess the Nitrogen Fixation in the Presence of Biofertilizer Based on Nod-Factors" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 23: 12991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312991

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