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Review

Phytoestrogens (Resveratrol and Equol) for Estrogen-Deficient Skin—Controversies/Misinformation versus Anti-Aging In Vitro and Clinical Evidence via Nutraceutical-Cosmetics

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and The Neuroscience Center, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011218
Received: 19 September 2021 / Revised: 10 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 18 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
The overarching theme for this review is perspective. Superfoods (a marketing term for fruits and vegetables, etc.) have a positive connotation, while many superfoods contain phytoestrogens, a term that is alarming to the public and has a negative connotation because phytoestrogens are endocrine-disruptors, even though they are strong antioxidants that have many health benefits. To understand phytoestrogens, this paper provides a brief summary of the characteristics of: (a) estrogens, (b) estrogen receptors (ER), (c) estrogen-deficient skin, (d) how perspective(s) get off track, (e) phytoestrogen food sources, and (f) misconceptions of phytoestrogens and food safety, in general, that influence person(s) away from what is true. Finally, a brief history of cosmetics to nutraceuticals is covered plus the characteristics of phytoestrogens, resveratrol and equol on: (g) estrogen receptor binding, (h) topical and oral dosing, and (i) in vitro, molecular mechanisms and select clinical evidence, where both phytoestrogens (resveratrol and equol) demonstrate promising applications to improve skin health is presented along with future directions of nutraceuticals. Perspective is paramount in understanding the controversies associated with superfoods, phytoestrogens, and endocrine-disruptors because they have both positive and negative connotations. Everyone is exposed to and consumes these molecules everyday regardless of age, gender, or geographic location around the world, and how we understand this is a matter of perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-aging; equol; estrogen; misinformation; nutraceutical; phytoestrogens; resveratrol; skin anti-aging; equol; estrogen; misinformation; nutraceutical; phytoestrogens; resveratrol; skin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lephart, E.D. Phytoestrogens (Resveratrol and Equol) for Estrogen-Deficient Skin—Controversies/Misinformation versus Anti-Aging In Vitro and Clinical Evidence via Nutraceutical-Cosmetics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011218

AMA Style

Lephart ED. Phytoestrogens (Resveratrol and Equol) for Estrogen-Deficient Skin—Controversies/Misinformation versus Anti-Aging In Vitro and Clinical Evidence via Nutraceutical-Cosmetics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):11218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lephart, Edwin D. 2021. "Phytoestrogens (Resveratrol and Equol) for Estrogen-Deficient Skin—Controversies/Misinformation versus Anti-Aging In Vitro and Clinical Evidence via Nutraceutical-Cosmetics" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 11218. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011218

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