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Open AccessArticle

Systemic Inflammation and the Breakdown of Intestinal Homeostasis Are Key Events in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients

1
Department of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Crta N-II km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
2
Institute Ramón y Cajal for Health Research (IRYCIS), Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, 28034 Madrid, Spain
3
Biomedical Institute for Liver and Gut Diseases (CIBEREHD), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Service of Rehabilitation, National Hospital for Paraplegic Patients, Carr. de la Peraleda, S/N, 45004 Toledo, Spain
5
Department of Immunology and Oncology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Darwin, 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain
6
Service of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
7
Immune System Diseases and Oncology Service, University Hospital “Príncipe de Asturias”, Crta N-II km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020744
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 27 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
Our aim was to investigate the subset distribution and function of circulating monocytes, proinflammatory cytokine levels, gut barrier damage, and bacterial translocation in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Thus, 56 SCI patients and 28 healthy donors were studied. The levels of circulating CD14+highCD16, CD14+highCD16+, and CD14+lowCD16+ monocytes, membrane TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, phagocytic activity, ROS generation, and intracytoplasmic TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were analyzed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Serum TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by Luminex and LPS-binding protein (LBP), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and zonulin by ELISA. SCI patients had normal monocyte counts and subset distribution. CD14+highCD16 and CD14+highCD16+ monocytes exhibited decreased TLR4, normal TLR2 and increased TLR9 expression. CD14+highCD16 monocytes had increased LPS-induced TNF-α but normal IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10 production. Monocytes exhibited defective phagocytosis but normal ROS production. Patients had enhanced serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels, normal IL-1 and IL-10 levels, and increased circulating LBP, I-FABP, and zonulin levels. Chronic SCI patients displayed impaired circulating monocyte function. These patients exhibited a systemic proinflammatory state characterized by enhanced serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. These patients also had increased bacterial translocation and gut barrier damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: monocyte; cytokines; chronic spinal cord injury; bacterial translocation; gut barrier damage; systemic inflammation monocyte; cytokines; chronic spinal cord injury; bacterial translocation; gut barrier damage; systemic inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz, D.; Lopez-Dolado, E.; Haro, S.; Monserrat, J.; Martinez-Alonso, C.; Balomeros, D.; Albillos, A.; Alvarez-Mon, M. Systemic Inflammation and the Breakdown of Intestinal Homeostasis Are Key Events in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020744

AMA Style

Diaz D, Lopez-Dolado E, Haro S, Monserrat J, Martinez-Alonso C, Balomeros D, Albillos A, Alvarez-Mon M. Systemic Inflammation and the Breakdown of Intestinal Homeostasis Are Key Events in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diaz, David; Lopez-Dolado, Elisa; Haro, Sergio; Monserrat, Jorge; Martinez-Alonso, Carlos; Balomeros, Dimitrios; Albillos, Agustín; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor. 2021. "Systemic Inflammation and the Breakdown of Intestinal Homeostasis Are Key Events in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020744

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