Next Article in Journal
Cellular Integrin α5β1 and Exosomal ADAM17 Mediate the Binding and Uptake of Exosomes Produced by Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Synchrotron-Based Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) Fingerprint of the Small Anionic Molecule Cobaltabis(dicarbollide) Uptake in Glioma Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
The In Vitro Anti-Pseudomonal Activity of Cu2+, Strawberry Furanone, Gentamicin, and Lytic Phages Alone and in Combination: Pros and Cons
Article

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Triggers Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages

1
Department of Medicine, The University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
2
Department of Neuroscience, The University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
3
Neurosciences Center, Promedica, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
4
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Guido R. M. M. Haenen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189939
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 8 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Molecular Toxicology)
We were the first to previously report that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has limited effects within the colons of healthy mice but has toxic effects within colons of mice with pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease. In the current investigation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which MC-LR exacerbates colitis and to identify effective therapeutic targets. Through our current investigation, we report that there is a significantly greater recruitment of macrophages into colonic tissue with pre-existing colitis in the presence of MC-LR than in the absence of MC-LR. This is seen quantitatively through IHC staining and the enumeration of F4/80-positive macrophages and through gene expression analysis for Cd68, Cd11b, and Cd163. Exposure of isolated macrophages to MC-LR was found to directly upregulate macrophage activation markers Tnf and Il1b. Through a high-throughput, unbiased kinase activity profiling strategy, MC-LR-induced phosphorylation events were compared with potential inhibitors, and doramapimod was found to effectively prevent MC-LR-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin; colitis; macrophages microcystin; colitis; macrophages
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Su, R.C.; Breidenbach, J.D.; Alganem, K.; Khalaf, F.K.; French, B.W.; Dube, P.; Malhotra, D.; McCullumsmith, R.; Presloid, J.B.; Wooten, R.M.; Kennedy, D.J.; Haller, S.T. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Triggers Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189939

AMA Style

Su RC, Breidenbach JD, Alganem K, Khalaf FK, French BW, Dube P, Malhotra D, McCullumsmith R, Presloid JB, Wooten RM, Kennedy DJ, Haller ST. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Triggers Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189939

Chicago/Turabian Style

Su, Robin C., Joshua D. Breidenbach, Khaled Alganem, Fatimah K. Khalaf, Benjamin W. French, Prabhatchandra Dube, Deepak Malhotra, Robert McCullumsmith, John B. Presloid, R. M. Wooten, David J. Kennedy, and Steven T. Haller 2021. "Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Triggers Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189939

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop