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Review

Interplay between Hepatitis E Virus and Host Cell Pattern Recognition Receptors

1
Manipal Institute of Virology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India
2
Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India
3
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India
4
Department of Immunohaematology and Blood Transfusion, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tomozumi Imamichi and Hongyan Sui
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179259
Received: 11 July 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA or RNA-Mediated Innate Immune Response)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) usually causes self-limiting acute hepatitis, but the disease can become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women is reported to cause up to 30% mortality, especially in the third trimester. Additionally, extrahepatic manifestations like neuronal and renal diseases and pancreatitis are also reported during the course of HEV infection. The mechanism of HEV pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Innate immunity is the first line of defense triggered within minutes to hours after the first pathogenic insult. Growing evidence based on reverse genetics systems, in vitro cell culture models, and representative studies in animal models including non-human primates, has implicated the role of the host’s innate immune response during HEV infection. HEV persists in presence of interferons (IFNs) plausibly by evading cellular antiviral defense. This review summarizes our current understanding of recognizing HEV-associated molecular patterns by host cell Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in eliciting innate immune response during HEV infection as well as mechanisms of virus-mediated immune evasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E virus; pattern recognition receptors; interferon; interferon-stimulated genes; innate immune response; inflammation hepatitis E virus; pattern recognition receptors; interferon; interferon-stimulated genes; innate immune response; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Devhare, P.; Madiyal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, C.; Shetty, S.; Shastry, S. Interplay between Hepatitis E Virus and Host Cell Pattern Recognition Receptors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179259

AMA Style

Devhare P, Madiyal M, Mukhopadhyay C, Shetty S, Shastry S. Interplay between Hepatitis E Virus and Host Cell Pattern Recognition Receptors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Devhare, Pradip, Mridula Madiyal, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Shiran Shetty, and Shamee Shastry. 2021. "Interplay between Hepatitis E Virus and Host Cell Pattern Recognition Receptors" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179259

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