Next Article in Journal
Insights into the Structure of Rubisco from Dinoflagellates-In Silico Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
RNA Granules in the Mitochondria and Their Organization under Mitochondrial Stresses
Previous Article in Journal
Quantitative Assessment of Point-of-Care 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cranial Implants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Modelling Mitochondrial Disease in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: What Have We Learned?
Review

Mitochondria-Induced Immune Response as a Trigger for Neurodegeneration: A Pathogen from Within

1
Institut de Neurociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María Eugenia Soriano and Carlo Viscomi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168523
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 7 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Mitochondrial Dysfunction)
Symbiosis between the mitochondrion and the ancestor of the eukaryotic cell allowed cellular complexity and supported life. Mitochondria have specialized in many key functions ensuring cell homeostasis and survival. Thus, proper communication between mitochondria and cell nucleus is paramount for cellular health. However, due to their archaebacterial origin, mitochondria possess a high immunogenic potential. Indeed, mitochondria have been identified as an intracellular source of molecules that can elicit cellular responses to pathogens. Compromised mitochondrial integrity leads to release of mitochondrial content into the cytosol, which triggers an unwanted cellular immune response. Mitochondrial nucleic acids (mtDNA and mtRNA) can interact with the same cytoplasmic sensors that are specialized in recognizing genetic material from pathogens. High-energy demanding cells, such as neurons, are highly affected by deficits in mitochondrial function. Notably, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and chronic inflammation are concurrent events in many severe debilitating disorders. Interestingly in this context of pathology, increasing number of studies have detected immune-activating mtDNA and mtRNA that induce an aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon effectors. Thus, this review provides new insights on mitochondria-driven inflammation as a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and primary mitochondrial diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mtDNA; mtRNA; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial disorders; neurodegeneration; antiviral response; inflammation; innate immunity; interferon mtDNA; mtRNA; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial disorders; neurodegeneration; antiviral response; inflammation; innate immunity; interferon
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Luna-Sánchez, M.; Bianchi, P.; Quintana, A. Mitochondria-Induced Immune Response as a Trigger for Neurodegeneration: A Pathogen from Within. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8523. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168523

AMA Style

Luna-Sánchez M, Bianchi P, Quintana A. Mitochondria-Induced Immune Response as a Trigger for Neurodegeneration: A Pathogen from Within. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8523. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luna-Sánchez, Marta, Patrizia Bianchi, and Albert Quintana. 2021. "Mitochondria-Induced Immune Response as a Trigger for Neurodegeneration: A Pathogen from Within" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8523. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168523

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop