Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that affects the brain and spinal cord. There are several disease courses in MS including relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Up to 50% of MS patients experience depressive disorders. Major depression (MD) is a serious comorbidity of MS. Many dysfunctions including neuroinflammation, peripheral inflammation, gut dysbiosis, chronic oxidative and nitrosative stress, and neuroendocrine and mitochondrial abnormalities may contribute to the comorbidity between MS and MD. In addition to these actions, medical treatment and microRNA (miRNA) regulation may also be involved in the mechanisms of the comorbidity between MS and MD. In the study, I review many common miRNA biomarkers for both diseases. These common miRNA biomarkers may help further explore the association between MS and MD.
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