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Review

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy and the Potential Influence of Gut Microbiome

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology/Oncology Division, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
2
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Silvia Turroni and Riccardo Masetti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157800
Received: 6 June 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Cancer 2.0)
Disruptions in the human gut microbiome have been associated with a cycle of hepatocyte injury and regeneration characteristic of chronic liver disease. Evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma through the persistence of this inflammation by inducing genetic and epigenetic changes leading to cancer. As the gut microbiome is known for its effect on host metabolism and immune response, it comes as no surprise that the gut microbiome may have a role in the response to therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy and chemotherapy for liver cancer. Gut microbiota may influence the efficacy of immunotherapy by regulating the responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review the mechanisms by which gut microbiota influences hepatic carcinogenesis, the immune checkpoint inhibitors currently being used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as summarize the current findings to support the potential critical role of gut microbiome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; gut microbiome; microbiota; immunotherapy hepatocellular carcinoma; gut microbiome; microbiota; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Temraz, S.; Nassar, F.; Kreidieh, F.; Mukherji, D.; Shamseddine, A.; Nasr, R. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy and the Potential Influence of Gut Microbiome. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157800

AMA Style

Temraz S, Nassar F, Kreidieh F, Mukherji D, Shamseddine A, Nasr R. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy and the Potential Influence of Gut Microbiome. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):7800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Temraz, Sally, Farah Nassar, Firas Kreidieh, Deborah Mukherji, Ali Shamseddine, and Rihab Nasr. 2021. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy and the Potential Influence of Gut Microbiome" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 7800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157800

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