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Article

Biodirected Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Honey Solutions and Evaluation of Their Antifungal Activity against Pathogenic Candida Spp.

1
Department of Biophysics, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Quality Assessment and Processing of Animal Products, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alina Maria Holban
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147715
Received: 4 June 2021 / Revised: 3 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Properties)
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous honey solutions with a concentration of 2%, 10%, and 20%—AgNPs-H2, AgNPs-H10, and AgNPs-H20. The reaction was conducted at 35 °C and 70 °C. Additionally, nanoparticles obtained with the citrate method (AgNPs-C), while amphotericin B (AmB) and fluconazole were used as controls. The presence and physicochemical properties of AgNPs was affirmed by analyzing the sample with ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The 20% honey solution caused an inhibition of the synthesis of nanoparticles at 35 °C. The antifungal activity of the AgNPs was evaluated using opportunistic human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. The antifungal effect was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion assay. The highest activity in the MIC tests was observed in the AgNPs-H2 variant. AgNPs-H10 and AgNPs-H20 showed no activity or even stimulated fungal growth. The results of the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test for C. parapsilosis strains indicated stronger antifungal activity of AgNPs-H than fluconazole. The study demonstrated that the antifungal activity of AgNPs is closely related to the concentration of honey used for the synthesis thereof. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; honey; aggregation; antifungal activity; zeta potential; molecular spectroscopy silver nanoparticles; honey; aggregation; antifungal activity; zeta potential; molecular spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Czernel, G.; Bloch, D.; Matwijczuk, A.; Cieśla, J.; Kędzierska-Matysek, M.; Florek, M.; Gagoś, M. Biodirected Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Honey Solutions and Evaluation of Their Antifungal Activity against Pathogenic Candida Spp. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7715. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147715

AMA Style

Czernel G, Bloch D, Matwijczuk A, Cieśla J, Kędzierska-Matysek M, Florek M, Gagoś M. Biodirected Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Honey Solutions and Evaluation of Their Antifungal Activity against Pathogenic Candida Spp. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7715. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147715

Chicago/Turabian Style

Czernel, Grzegorz, Dominika Bloch, Arkadiusz Matwijczuk, Jolanta Cieśla, Monika Kędzierska-Matysek, Mariusz Florek, and Mariusz Gagoś. 2021. "Biodirected Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Honey Solutions and Evaluation of Their Antifungal Activity against Pathogenic Candida Spp." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7715. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147715

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