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Breast Cancer and the Other Non-Coding RNAs

An Overview of the Role of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Human Choriocarcinoma

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, MSD 2080 Msida, Malta
Center for Biotechnology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Department of Pathology, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa, NOVA Medical School, UNL, 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Histopathology, Trinity St James’s Cancer Institute, Trinity College Dublin, 8 Dublin, Ireland
Department of Histopathology, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity St James’s Cancer Institute, 8 Dublin, Ireland
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Trinity St James Cancer Institute, St James Hospital, 8 Dublin, Ireland
Laboratory for Hereditary Cancer, Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Medical University Pleven, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
Department of Surgery, Alexandrovska University Hospital, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria
Department of Gynecology, Medical University Varna “Prof. Dr. Paraskev Stoyanov”, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria
Saint Marina University Hospital—Pleven, Medical University Pleven, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
Department of Histopathology, Mater Dei Hospital, Birkirkara Bypass, MSD 2090 Msida, Malta
Centre for Molecular Medicine & Biobanking, University of Malta, MSD 2080 Msida, Malta
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7DN, UK
Cell Biology and Biotherapy Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-IRCCS-Fondazione G. Pascale, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Damjan Glavač and Metka Ravnik-Glavač
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6506;
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) in Cancer)
Choriocarcinoma (CC), a subtype of trophoblastic disease, is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. There are two main CC subtypes: gestational and non-gestational, (so called when it develops as a component of a germ cell tumor or is related to a somatic mutation of a poorly differentiated carcinoma), each with very diverse biological activity. A therapeutic approach is highly effective in patients with early-stage CC. The advanced stage of the disease also has a good prognosis with around 95% of patients cured following chemotherapy. However, advancements in diagnosis and treatment are always needed to improve outcomes for patients with CC. Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are non-coding transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Deregulation of their expression has a key role in tumor development, angiogenesis, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and proliferation. Furthermore, detection of cancer-associated lncRNAs in body fluids, such as blood, saliva, and urine of cancer patients, is emerging as a novel method for cancer diagnosis. Although there is evidence for the potential role of lncRNAs in a number of cancers of the female genital tract, their role in CC is poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs in gestational CC and how this may be applied to future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this rare cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: choriocarcinoma; rare cancer; long non-coding RNA; oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes; lncRNA-based therapy choriocarcinoma; rare cancer; long non-coding RNA; oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes; lncRNA-based therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Fiore, R.; Suleiman, S.; Felix, A.; O’Toole, S.A.; O’Leary, J.J.; Ward, M.P.; Beirne, J.; Sabol, M.; Ozretić, P.; Yordanov, A.; Vasileva-Slaveva, M.; Kostov, S.; Nikolova, M.; Said-Huntingford, I.; Ayers, D.; Ellul, B.; Pentimalli, F.; Giordano, A.; Calleja-Agius, J. An Overview of the Role of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Human Choriocarcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6506.

AMA Style

Di Fiore R, Suleiman S, Felix A, O’Toole SA, O’Leary JJ, Ward MP, Beirne J, Sabol M, Ozretić P, Yordanov A, Vasileva-Slaveva M, Kostov S, Nikolova M, Said-Huntingford I, Ayers D, Ellul B, Pentimalli F, Giordano A, Calleja-Agius J. An Overview of the Role of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Human Choriocarcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6506.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Fiore, Riccardo, Sherif Suleiman, Ana Felix, Sharon A. O’Toole, John J. O’Leary, Mark P. Ward, James Beirne, Maja Sabol, Petar Ozretić, Angel Yordanov, Mariela Vasileva-Slaveva, Stoyan Kostov, Margarita Nikolova, Ian Said-Huntingford, Duncan Ayers, Bridget Ellul, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano, and Jean Calleja-Agius. 2021. "An Overview of the Role of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Human Choriocarcinoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6506.

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