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Endocannabinoid System and Its Regulation by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Full Spectrum Hemp Oils

1
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina Research Campus, North Carolina State University, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
2
Department of Food, Bioprocessing & Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, 400 Dan Allen Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, North Carolina State University, 100 Derieux Place, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
4
Standard Process Inc., Nutrition Innovation Center, 150 N Research Campus Drive, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Senior author: [email protected]; Tel.: +1-262-473-9223.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115479
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Pharmacology)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of endogenous cannabinoids, their receptors, and metabolic enzymes that play a critical homeostatic role in modulating polyunsaturated omega fatty acid (PUFA) signaling to maintain a balanced inflammatory and redox state. Whole food-based diets and dietary interventions linked to PUFAs of animal (fish, calamari, krill) or plant (hemp, flax, walnut, algae) origin, as well as full-spectrum hemp oils, are increasingly used to support the ECS tone, promote healthy metabolism, improve risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders, encourage brain health and emotional well-being, and ameliorate inflammation. While hemp cannabinoids of THC and CBD groups show distinct but complementary actions through a variety of cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2), adenosine (A2A), and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptors, they also modulate PUFA metabolism within a wide variety of specialized lipid mediators that promote or resolve inflammation and oxidative stress. Clinical evidence reviewed in this study links PUFAs and cannabinoids to changes in ECS tone, immune function, metabolic and oxidative stress adaptation, and overall maintenance of a well-balanced systemic function of the body. Understanding how the body coordinates signals from the exogenous and endogenous ECS modulators is critical for discerning the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ECS tone in healthy and disease states. Nutritional and lifestyle interventions represent promising approaches to address chronic metabolic and inflammatory disorders that may overlap in the population at risk. Further investigation and validation of dietary interventions that modulate the ECS are required in order to devise clinically successful second-generation management strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ECS tone; phytocannabinoids; inflammation resolution; oxidative stress; systemic redox balance ECS tone; phytocannabinoids; inflammation resolution; oxidative stress; systemic redox balance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Komarnytsky, S.; Rathinasabapathy, T.; Wagner, C.; Metzger, B.; Carlisle, C.; Panda, C.; Le Brun-Blashka, S.; Troup, J.P.; Varadharaj, S. Endocannabinoid System and Its Regulation by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Full Spectrum Hemp Oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115479

AMA Style

Komarnytsky S, Rathinasabapathy T, Wagner C, Metzger B, Carlisle C, Panda C, Le Brun-Blashka S, Troup JP, Varadharaj S. Endocannabinoid System and Its Regulation by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Full Spectrum Hemp Oils. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Komarnytsky, Slavko, Thirumurugan Rathinasabapathy, Charles Wagner, Brandon Metzger, Carolina Carlisle, Chinmayee Panda, Sara Le Brun-Blashka, John P. Troup, and Saradhadevi Varadharaj. 2021. "Endocannabinoid System and Its Regulation by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Full Spectrum Hemp Oils" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115479

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