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Article

Enhanced Activity and Sustained Release of Protocatechuic Acid, a Natural Antibacterial Agent, from Hybrid Nanoformulations with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

1
Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomedicine, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska St. 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Poland
2
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El-Behouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
3
Department of Biomaterials Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry and Biomaterials, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, 1 Banacha St., 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
4
Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 El-Behouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Giovagnoli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105287
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 30 April 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
Hybrid nanostructures can be developed with inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and natural antibacterials. ZnO NPs can also exert antibacterial effects, and we used them here to examine their dual action in combination with a natural antibacterial agent, protocatechuic acid (PCA). To produce hybrid nanoformulations, we functionalized ZnO NPs with four types of silane organic molecules and successfully linked them to PCA. Physicochemical assessment confirmed PCA content up to ~18% in hybrid nanoformulations, with a PCA entrapment efficiency of ~72%, indicating successful connection. We then investigated the in vitro release kinetics and antibacterial effects of the hybrid against Staphylococcus aureus. PCA release from hybrid nanoformulations varied with silane surface modification. Within 98 h, only 8% of the total encapsulated PCA was released, suggesting sustained long-term release. We used nanoformulation solutions collected at days 3, 5, and 7 by disc diffusion or log reduction to evaluate their antibacterial effect against S. aureus. The hybrid nanoformulation showed efficient antibacterial and bactericidal effects that also depended on the surface modification and at a lower minimum inhibition concentration compared with the separate components. A hybrid nanoformulation of the PCA prodrug and ZnO NPs offers effective sustained-release inhibition of S. aureus growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles; protocatechuic acid prodrug; natural agents; hybrid nanoformulation; delivery system; sustained release; antibacterial effect; Staphylococcus aureus ZnO nanoparticles; protocatechuic acid prodrug; natural agents; hybrid nanoformulation; delivery system; sustained release; antibacterial effect; Staphylococcus aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

AbouAitah, K.; Piotrowska, U.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Swiderska-Sroda, A.; El-Desoky, A.H.H.; Lojkowski, W. Enhanced Activity and Sustained Release of Protocatechuic Acid, a Natural Antibacterial Agent, from Hybrid Nanoformulations with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5287. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105287

AMA Style

AbouAitah K, Piotrowska U, Wojnarowicz J, Swiderska-Sroda A, El-Desoky AHH, Lojkowski W. Enhanced Activity and Sustained Release of Protocatechuic Acid, a Natural Antibacterial Agent, from Hybrid Nanoformulations with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(10):5287. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105287

Chicago/Turabian Style

AbouAitah, Khaled, Urszula Piotrowska, Jacek Wojnarowicz, Anna Swiderska-Sroda, Ahmed H.H. El-Desoky, and Witold Lojkowski. 2021. "Enhanced Activity and Sustained Release of Protocatechuic Acid, a Natural Antibacterial Agent, from Hybrid Nanoformulations with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 10: 5287. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105287

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