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Article

Tryptophan Derivatives by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118: Evaluation, Optimization, and Production in a Soybean-Based Medium

1
Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20142 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Phytochem Lab, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Center for Studies on Bioispired Agro-Environmental Technology (BAT Center), National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010472
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tryptophan in Nutrition and Health)
Given the pharmacological properti es and the potential role of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in human physiology and the pleiotropic activity of the neurohormone melatonin (MEL) involved in physiological and immunological functions and as regulator of antioxidant enzymes, this study aimed at evaluating the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 to release tryptophan derivatives (dTRPs) from the kynurenine (KYN) and melatonin pathways. The setting up of the spectroscopic and chromatographic conditions for the quantification of the dTRPs in LC-MS/MS system, the optimization of dTRPs’ production in fermentative and whole-cell biotransformation approaches and the production of dTRPs in a soybean-based cultural medium naturally enriched in tryptophan, as a case of study, were included in the experimental plan. Variable amounts of dTRPs, with a prevalence of metabolites of the KYN pathway, were detected. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the compound synthesized at highest concentration is KYNA that reached 9.146 ± 0.585 mg/L in fermentation trials in a chemically defined medium at 400 mg/L TRP. Further experiments in a soybean-based medium confirm KYNA as the main dTRPs, whereas the other dTRPs reached very lower concentrations. While detectable quantities of melatonin were never observed, two MEL isomers were successfully measured in laboratory media. View Full-Text
Keywords: kynurenine pathway; MEL biosynthesis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast; tryptophan extraction; LC-MS/MS; soybean kynurenine pathway; MEL biosynthesis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; yeast; tryptophan extraction; LC-MS/MS; soybean
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dei Cas, M.; Vigentini, I.; Vitalini, S.; Laganaro, A.; Iriti, M.; Paroni, R.; Foschino, R. Tryptophan Derivatives by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118: Evaluation, Optimization, and Production in a Soybean-Based Medium. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010472

AMA Style

Dei Cas M, Vigentini I, Vitalini S, Laganaro A, Iriti M, Paroni R, Foschino R. Tryptophan Derivatives by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118: Evaluation, Optimization, and Production in a Soybean-Based Medium. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):472. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dei Cas, Michele, Ileana Vigentini, Sara Vitalini, Antonella Laganaro, Marcello Iriti, Rita Paroni, and Roberto Foschino. 2021. "Tryptophan Derivatives by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118: Evaluation, Optimization, and Production in a Soybean-Based Medium" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010472

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