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Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management

Department of Experimental Physiology and Pathophysiology, Laboratory of the Centre for Preclinical Research, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
Bristol Dermatology Centre, University Hospitals Bristol, Bristol BS2 8HW, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2886;
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Accumulating evidence indicates that microbiota plays a critical role in physiological processes in humans. However, it might also contribute to body malodor by producing numerous odorous molecules such as ammonia, volatile sulfur compounds or trimethylamine. Although malodor is commonly overlooked by physicians, it constitutes a major problem for many otherwise healthy people. Thus, this review aims to investigate most common causes of malodor and describe potential therapeutic options. We searched PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify the clinical and pre-clinical studies on bad body smell, malodor, halitosis and microbiota. Unpleasant smell might originate from the mouth, skin, urine or reproductive fluids and is usually caused by odorants that are produced by resident bacterial flora. The accumulation of odorous compounds might result from diet, specific composition of microbiota, as well as compromised function of the liver, intestines and kidneys. Evidence-based guidelines for management of body malodor are lacking and no universal treatment exists. However, the alleviation of the symptoms may be achieved by controlling the diet and physical elimination of bacteria and/or accumulated odorants. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; host interactions; symbiosis; dysbiosis; halitosis; malodor gut microbiota; host interactions; symbiosis; dysbiosis; halitosis; malodor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mogilnicka, I.; Bogucki, P.; Ufnal, M. Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2886.

AMA Style

Mogilnicka I, Bogucki P, Ufnal M. Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(8):2886.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mogilnicka, Izabella; Bogucki, Pawel; Ufnal, Marcin. 2020. "Microbiota and Malodor—Etiology and Management" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 8: 2886.

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